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Computer Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: Problems, Datasets and State-of-the-Art


Joel Janai, Fatma Güney, Aseem Behl, Andreas Geiger

Original concept by Andrej Karpathy, source code on github

Summaries of all papers discussed in the survey paper on autonomous vision.

It is very likely that we have missed several highly important works. Therefore, we appreciate every feedback from the community on what we should add. If you have comments, please send an E-Mail to . We will take every comment into consideration for the next version of the survey paper.


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Summaries

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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Road Scene Segmentation from a Single Image [pdf] [slide]
Jose Manuel Alvarez and Theo Gevers and Yann LeCun and Antonio M. Lopez
ECCV 2012
Alvarez2012ECCV

  • Recovering the 3D structure of the road scenes
  • Convolutional neural network to learn features from noisy labels to recover the 3D scene layout
  • Generating training labels by applying an algorithm trained on a general image dataset
  • Train network using the generated labels to classify on-board images (offline)
  • Online learning of patterns in stochastic random textures (i.e. road texture)
  • Texture descriptor based on a learned color plane fusion to obtain maximal uniformity in road areas
  • Offline and online information are combined to detect road areas in single images
  • Evaluation on a self-recorded dataset and CamVid
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Road Detection Based on Illuminant Invariance [pdf] [slide]
Jose Manuel Alvarez and Antonio M. Lopez
TITS 2011
Alvarez2011TITS

  • Identifying road pixels is a major challenge due to the intraclass variability caused by lighting conditions. A particularly difficult scenario appears when the road surface has both shadowed and nonshadowed areas
  • Proposes a novel approach to vision-based road detection that is robust to shadows
  • Contributions:
    • Uses a shadow-invariant feature space combined with a model-based classifier
    • Proposes to use the illuminant-invariant image as the feature space
    • This invariant image is derived from the physics behind color formation in the presence of a Planckian light source, Lambertian surfaces, and narrowband imaging sensors.
    • Sunlight is approximately Planckian, road surfaces are mainly Lambertian, and regular color cameras are near narrowband
  • Evaluates on self-recorded data
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ReconstructionStereo
Stereo Matching by Training a Convolutional Neural Network to Compare Image Patches [pdf] [slide]
Zbontar, Jure and LeCun, Yann
JMLR 2016
Zbontar2016JMLR

  • Matching cost computation by learning a similarity measure on patches using a CNN
    • Siamese network with normalization and cosine similarity in the end
    • Fast architecture and accurate architecture (+fully connected layers)
  • Binary classification of similar and dissimilar pairs
    • Sampling negatives in the neighbourhood of the positive
    • Margin loss
  • A series of post-processing steps:
    • cross-based cost aggregation, semiglobal matching, a left-right consistency check, subpixel enhancement, a median filter, and a bilateral filter
  • The best performing on KITTI 2012, 2015 datasets
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
3D Scene Priors for Road Detection [pdf] [slide]
Jose M. Alvarez and Theo Gevers and Antonio M. Lopez
CVPR 2010
Alvarez2010CVPR

  • Visionbased road detection
  • Current methods:
    • Based on low-level features only
    • Assuming structured roads, road homogeneity, and uniform lighting conditions
  • Information at scene, image and pixel level by exploiting sequential nature of the data
  • Low-level, contextual and temporal cues combined in a Bayesian framework
  • Contextual cues as horizon lines, vanishing points, 3D scene layout and 3D road stages
  • Robust to varying imaging conditions, road types, and scenarios (tunnels, urban and high-way)
  • Combined cues outperforms all other individual cues.
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TrackingPerson Tracking
Monocular 3D Pose Estimation and Tracking by Detection [pdf] [slide]
Mykhaylo Andriluka and Stefan Roth and Schiele, Bernt
CVPR 2010
Andriluka2010CVPR

  • 3D pose estimation from image sequences using tracking by detection
  • Methods so far worked well in controlled environments but struggle with real world scenarios
  • Three staged approach
    • Initial estimate of 2D articulation and viewpoint of the person using an extended 2D person detector
    • Data association and accumulation into robust estimates of 2D limbs positions using a HMM based tracking approach
    • Estimates used as robust image observation to reliably recover 3D pose in a Bayesian framework using hGPLVM as temporal prior
  • Evaluation on HumanEva II and a novel real world dataset TUD Stadtmitte for qualitative results
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TrackingPerson Tracking
People-Tracking-by-Detection and People-Detection-by-Tracking [pdf] [slide]
M. Andriluka and S. Roth and B. Schiele
CVPR 2008
Andriluka2008CVPR

  • Combining detection and tracking in a single framework
  • Motivation:
    • People detection in complex street scenes, but with frequent false positives
    • Tracking for a particular individual, but challenged by crowded street scenes
  • Extension of a state-of-the-art people detector with a limb-based structure model
  • Hierarchical Gaussian process latent variable model (hGPLVM) to model dynamics of the individual limbs
    • Prior knowledge on possible articulations
    • Temporal coherency within a walking cycle
  • HMM to extend the people-tracklets to possibly longer sequences
  • Improved hypotheses for position and articulation of each person in several frames
  • Detection and tracking of multiple people in cluttered scenes with reoccurring occlusions
  • Evaluated on TUD-Campus dataset
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Tracking
Multi-target tracking by continuous energy minimization [pdf] [slide]
Andriyenko, Anton and Schindler, Konrad
CVPR 2011
Andriyenko2011CVPR

  • Existing methods limit the state space, either by per-frame non-maxima suppression or by discretizing locations to a coarse grid
  • Contributions:
    • Target locations are not bound to discrete object detections or grid positions, therefore defined in case of detector failure, and that there is no grid aliasing
    • Proposes that convexity is not the primary requirement for a good cost function in the case of tracking.
    • New minimization procedure is capable of exploring a much larger portion of the search space than standard gradient methods
  • Evaluates on sequences from terrace1,terrace2, VS-PETS2009, TUD-Stadtmitte datasets
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Tracking
Discrete-continuous optimization for multi-target tracking [pdf] [slide]
Andriyenko, Anton and Schindler, Konrad and Roth, Stefan
CVPR 2012
Andriyenko2012CVPR

  • Multi-target tracking consists of the discrete problem of data association and the continuous problem of trajectory estimation
  • Both problems were tackled separately using precomputed trajectories for data association
  • Discrete-continuous optimization that jointly addresses data association and trajectory estimation
  • Continuous trajectory model using cubic B-splines
  • Discrete association using a MRF that assigns each observation to a trajectory or identifies it as outlier
  • Combined formulation with label costs to avoid too many trajectories
  • Evaluation on the TUD datasets
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Google Street View: Capturing the World at Street Level [pdf] [slide]
Dragomir Anguelov and Carole Dulong and Daniel Filip and Christian Frueh and Stephane Lafon and Richard Lyon and Abhijit S. Ogale and Luc Vincent and Josh Weaver
COMPUTER 2010
Anguelov2010COMPUTER

  • Google Street View captures panoramic imagery of streets in hundreds of cities in 20 countries
  • Technical challenges in capturing, processing, and serving street-level imagery
  • Developed sophisticated hardware, software and operational processes
  • Pose estimation using GPS, wheel encoder, and inertial with an online Kalman-filter-based algorithm
  • Camera system consisting of 15 small cameras using 5 MP CMOS
  • Laser range data is aggregated and simplified by fitting a coarse mesh
  • Supports 3D navigation
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Semantic Segmentation of Earth Observation Data Using Multimodal and Multi-scale Deep Networks [pdf] [slide]
Nicolas Audebert and Bertrand Le Saux and Sebastien Lefevre
ARXIV 2016
Audebert2016ARXIV

  • Investigates the use of deep fully convolutional neural networks for pixel-wise scene labeling of Earth Observation images
  • Contributions:
    • Transfers efficiently a deep fully convolutional neural networks from generic everyday images to remote sensing images
    • Introduces a multi-kernel convolutional layer for fast aggregation of predictions at multiple scales
    • Performs data fusion from heterogeneous sensors (optical and laser) using residual correction
  • Evaluates on ISPRS Vaihingen 2D Semantic Labeling dataset
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Free Space Computation Using Stochastic Occupancy Grids and Dynamic Programming [pdf] [slide]
H. Badino and U. Franke and R. Mester
ICCVWORK 2007
Badino2007ICCVWORK

  • The free space is the world regions where navigation without collision is guaranteed
  • Contributions:
    • Presents a method for the computation of free space with stochastic occupancy grids
    • Stereo measurements are integrated over time reducing disparity uncertainty.
    • These integrated measurements are entered into an occupancy grid, taking into account the noise properties of the measurements
    • Defines three types of grids and discusses their benefits and drawbacks
    • Applies dynamic programming to a polar occupancy grid, to find the optimal segmentation between free and occupied regions
  • Evaluates on stereo sequences introduced in the paper
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RepresentationsStixels
The Stixel World - A Compact Medium Level Representation of the 3D-World [pdf] [slide]
Badino, Hernan and Franke, Uwe and Pfeiffer, David
DAGM 2009
Badino2009DAGM

  • Motivation: Develop a compact, flexible representation of the 3D traffic situation that can be used for the scene understanding tasks of driver assistance and autonomous systems
  • Contributions:
    • Introduces a new primitive, a set of rectangular sticks called stixel for modeling 3D scenes
    • Each stixel is defined by its 3D position relative to the camera and stands vertically on the ground, having a certain height
    • Each stixel limits the free space and approximates the object boundaries
  • Stochastic occupancy grids are computed from dense stereo information
  • Free space is computed from a polar representation of the occupancy grid
  • The height of the stixels is obtained by segmenting the disparity image in foreground and background disparities
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Real-Time Topometric Localization [pdf] [slide]
Hernan Badino and Daniel Huber and Takeo Kanade
ICRA 2012
Badino2012ICRA

  • Autonomous vehicles must be capable of localizing in GPS denied situations
  • Topometric localization which combines topological with metric localization
  • Build compact database of simple visual and 3D features with GPS equipped vehicle
  • Whole image SURF descriptor, a vector containing gradient information of entire image
  • Range mean and standard deviation descriptor
  • Localization using a Bayesian filter to match visual and range measurements to the database
  • Algorithm is reliable across wide environmental change, including lighting difference, seasonal variations
  • Evaluation using a vehicle with mounted video cameras and LIDAR
  • Achieving an average localization accuracy of 1 m on an 8 km route
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Stereo-based Free Space Computation in Complex Traffic Scenarios [pdf] [slide]
Badino, H. and Mester, R. and Vaudrey, T. and Franke, U.
IAI 2008
Badino2008IAI

  • Computation of free space in complex traffic scenarios including moving objects
  • By integrating stereo measurements over time
    • Pixel-wise disparity and disparity speed with Kalman filters
    • Stochastic occupancy grids using stereo information
    • Dynamic programming on a polar-like occupancy grid
  • 20 Hz frame on VGA resolution test images
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Semantic SegmentationLabel Propagation
Mixture of trees probabilistic graphical model for video segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Badrinarayanan, Vijay and Budvytis, Ignas and Cipolla, Roberto
IJCV 2014
Badrinarayanan2014IJCV

  • Mixture of trees probabilistic graphical model for semi-supervised video segmentation
  • Each component represents a tree structured temporal linkage between super-pixels from first to last frame
  • Variational inference scheme for this model to estimate super-pixel labels and the confidence
    • Structured variational inference without unaries to estimate super-pixel marginal posteriors
    • Training a soft label Random Forest classifier with pixel marginal posteriors
    • Predictions are injected back as unaries in the second iteration of label inference
  • Inference over full video volume which helps to avoid erroneous label propagation
  • Very efficient in term of computational speed and memory usage and can be used in real time
  • Evaluation using the challenging SegTrack dataset (binary segmentation), CamVid driving video dataset(multi-class segmentation)
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Semantic SegmentationLabel Propagation
Label Propagation in Video Sequences [pdf] [slide]
Vijay Badrinarayanan and Fabio Galasso and Roberto Cipolla
CVPR 2010
Badrinarayanan2010CVPR

  • Labelling of video sequences is expensive
  • Hidden Markov Model for label propagation in video sequences
  • Using a limited amount of hand labelled pixels
  • Optic Flow based, image patches based, semantic regions based label propagation
  • Short sequences naive optic flow based propagation is sufficient otherwise more sophisticated models necessary
  • Evaluation by training Random forest classifier for video segmentation with ground truth and data from label propagation
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
SegNet: A Deep Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Architecture for Image Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Vijay Badrinarayanan and Alex Kendall and Roberto Cipolla
ARXIV 2015
Badrinarayanan2015ARXIV

  • Motivation: Need to design an architecture for scene understanding which is efficient in terms of memory & computational time
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes novel manner in which the decoder upsamples its lower resolution input feature map
    • The decoder uses pooling indices computed in the max-pooling step of the encoder to perform non-linear upsampling
    • This eliminates the need for learning to upsample and significantly smaller number of trainable parameters
  • Evaluates on CamVid road scene segmentation & SUN RGB-D indoor scene segmentation
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Exploiting Semantic Information and Deep Matching for Optical Flow [pdf] [slide]
Min Bai and Wenjie Luo and Kaustav Kundu and Raquel Urtasun
ECCV 2016
Bai2016ECCV

  • Optical flow for autonomous driving
  • Assumptions
    • Static background
    • Small number of rigidly moving objects
  • Foreground/background segmentation using semantic segmentation network in combination with 3D object detection
  • Propose a siamese network with product layer that learns flow matching with uncertainty
  • Restrict the flow matches to lie on its epipolar line
  • Slanted plane model for background flow estimation
  • Evaluation on KITTI 2015
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
A Database and Evaluation Methodology for Optical Flow [pdf] [slide]
Baker, Simon and Scharstein, Daniel and Lewis, J. and Roth, Stefan and Black, Michael and Szeliski, Richard
IJCV 2011
Baker2011IJCV

  • Presents a collection of datasets for the evaluation of optical flow algorithms
  • Contributes four types of data to test different aspects of optical flow algorithms:
    • Sequences with nonrigid motion where the ground-truth flow is determined by tracking hidden fluorescent texture
    • Realistic synthetic sequences - addresses the limitations of previous dataset sequences by rendering more complex scenes with significant motion discontinuities and textureless regions
    • High frame-rate video used to study interpolation error
    • Modified stereo sequences of static scenes for optical flow
  • Evaluates a number of well-known flow algorithms to characterize the current state of the art
  • Extendes the set of evaluation measures and improved the evaluation methodology
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Geo-localization of street views with aerial image databases [pdf] [slide]
Mayank Bansal and Harpreet S. Sawhney and Hui Cheng and Kostas Daniilidis
ICM 2011
Bansal2011ICM

  • Aerial image databases are widely available while image from the ground of urban areas is limited
  • Localization of ground level images in urban areas using a database of satellite and oblique aerial images
  • Method for estimating building facades by extracting line segments from satellite and aerial images
  • Correspondence of building facades between aerial and ground images using statistical self-similarity with respect to other patches on a facade
  • Position and orientation estimation of ground images
  • Qualitative results on a region around Ridieu St. in Ottawa, Canada with BEV, Panoramio imagery and Google Street-view screen-shots
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Dense Object Reconstruction with Semantic Priors [pdf] [slide]
Bao, S.Y. and Chandraker, M. and Yuanqing Lin and Savarese, S.
CVPR 2013
Bao2013CVPR

  • Dense reconstruction incorporating semantic information to overcome drawbacks of traditional multiview stereo
  • Learning a prior comprised of a mean shape and a set of weighted anchor points
  • Training from of 3D scans and images of objects from various viewpoints
  • Robust algorithm to match anchor points across instances enables learning a mean shape for the category
  • Shape of an object modelled as warped version of the category mean with instance-specific details
  • Qualitative and quantitative results on a small dataset of model cars using leave-one-out
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Pedestrian detection at 100 frames per second [pdf] [slide]
Rodrigo Benenson and Markus Mathias and Radu Timofte and Luc J. Van Gool
CVPR 2012
Benenson2012CVPR

  • Fast and high quality pedestrian detection
  • Two new algorithmic speed-ups:
    • Exploiting geometric context extracted from stereo images
    • Efficiently handling different scales
  • Object detection without image resizing using stixels
  • Similar to Viola and Jones: scale the features not the images, applied to HOG-like features
  • Detections at 50 fps (135 fps on CPU+GPU)
  • Evaluated on INRIA Persons and Bahnhof sequence
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Ten Years of Pedestrian Detection, What Have We Learned? [pdf] [slide]
Rodrigo Benenson and Mohamed Omran and Jan Hendrik Hosang and Bernt Schiele
ECCV 2014
Benenson2014ECCV

  • Aim is to review progress over the last decade of pedestrian detection, & try to quantify which ideas had the most impact on final detection quality
  • Evaluates on Caltech-USA, INRIA and KITTI datasets for comparing methods
  • Conclusions:
    • There is no conclusive empirical evidence indicating that whether non-linear kernels provide meaningful gains over linear kernel
    • The 3 families of pedestrian detectors (DPMs, decision forests, deep networks) are based on different learning techniques, their results are surprisingly close
    • Multi-scale models provide a simple and generic extension to existing detectors. Despite consistent improvements, their contribution to the final quality is minor
    • Most of the progress can be attributed to the improvement in features alone
    • Combining the detector ingredients found to work well (better features, optical flow, and context) shows that these ingredients are mostly complementary
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Projects
VIAC: An out of ordinary experiment [pdf] [slide]
Massimo Bertozzi and Luca Bombini and Alberto Broggi and Michele Buzzoni and Elena Cardarelli and Stefano Cattani and Pietro Cerri and Alessandro Coati and Stefano Debattisti and Andrea Falzoni and Rean Isabella Fedriga and Mirko Felisa and Luca Gatti and Alessandro Giacomazzo and Paolo Grisleri and Maria Chiara Laghi and Luca Mazzei and Paolo Medici and Matteo Panciroli and Pier Paolo Porta and Paolo Zani and Pietro Versari
IV 2011
Bertozzi2011IV

  • Presents the details and preliminary results of VIAC, the VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge, a test of autonomous driving along an unknown route from Italy to China
  • The onboard perception systems can detect obstacles, lane markings, ditches, berms and indentify the presence and position of a preceding vehicle
  • The information on the environment produced by the sensing suite is used to perform different tasks, such as leader-following, stop & go, and waypoint following
  • All data have been logged, including all data generated by the sensors, vehicle data, and GPS info
  • This data is available for a deep analysis of the various systems performance, with the aim of virtually running the whole trip multiple times with improved versions of the software
  • This paper discusses some preliminary results and figures obtained by the analysis of the data collected during the test
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Projects
Vision-based intelligent vehicles: State of the art and perspectives [pdf] [slide]
Massimo Bertozzi and Alberto Broggi and Alessandra Fascioli
RAS 2000
Bertozzi2000RAS

  • Survey on the most common approaches to the challenging task of Autonomous Road Following
  • Computing power not a problem any more
  • Data acquisition still problematic with difficulties like light reflections, wet road, direct sunshine, tunnels, shadows.
  • Enhancement of sensor's capabilities and performance need to be addressed
  • Full automation of traffic is technically feasible
  • Legal aspects related to the responsibility and the impact of automatic driving on human passengers need to be carefully considered
  • Automation will be restricted to special infrastructure for now and will be gradually extended to other key transportations areas as shipping
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Large-Scale Semantic 3D Reconstruction: An Adaptive Multi-Resolution Model for Multi-Class Volumetric Labeling [pdf] [slide]
Blaha, Maros and Vogel, Christoph and Richard, Audrey and Wegner, Jan D. and Pock, Thomas and Schindler, Konrad
CVPR 2016
Blaha2016CVPR

  • Joint formulation of semantic segmentation and 3D reconstruction enables to use class-specific shape priors
  • State-of-the-art could not scale to large scenes because of run time and memory
  • Extension of an expensive volumetric approach
    • Hierarchical scheme using an Octree structure
    • Refines only in regions containing surfaces
    • Coarse-to-fine converges faster because of improved initial guesses
  • Saves 95 computation time and 98 memory usage
  • Evaluation on real world data set from the city of Enschede
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
Efficient Volumetric Fusion of Airborne and Street-Side Data for Urban Reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Andrs Bdis-Szomor and Hayko Riemenschneider and Luc Van Gool
ICPR 2016
Bodis-Szomoru2016ICPR

  • Introduces an approach that unifies a detailed street-side MVS point cloud & a coarser but more complete point cloud from airborne acquisition in a joint surface mesh
  • Airborne acquisition and on-road mobile mapping provide complementary 3D information of an urban landscape
  • The former acquires roof structures, ground, and vegetation at a large scale, but lacks the facade and street-side details, while the latter is incomplete for higher floors and often totally misses out on pedestrian-only areas or undriven districts
  • Proposes a point cloud blending & volumetric fusion based on ray casting across a 3D tetrahedralization, extended with data reduction techniques to handle large datasets
  • First to adopt a 3DT approach for airborne/street- side data fusion
  • Pipeline exploits typical characteristics of airborne and ground data, and produces a seamless, watertight mesh that is both complete and detailed
  • Evaluates on self-recorded 3D urban data
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Object DetectionHuman Pose Estimation
Keep It SMPL: Automatic Estimation of 3D Human Pose and Shape from a Single Image [pdf] [slide]
Federica Bogo and Angjoo Kanazawa and Christoph Lassner and Peter V. Gehler and Javier Romero and Michael J. Black
ECCV 2016
Bogo2016ECCV

  • Describes the first method to automatically estimate the 3D pose of the human body as well as its 3D shape from a single unconstrained image
  • Estimates a full 3D mesh and shows that 2D joints alone carry a surprising amount of information about body shape
  • First uses a CNN-based method, DeepCut, to predict the 2D body joint locations
  • Then fits a body shape model, called SMPL, to the 2D joints by minimizing an objective function that penalizes the error between the projected 3D model joints and detected 2D joints
  • Because SMPL captures correlations in human shape across the population, robust fitting is possible with very little data
  • Evaluates on Leeds Sports, HumanEva, and Human3.6M datasets
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Projects
End to End Learning for Self-Driving Cars [pdf] [slide]
Mariusz Bojarski and Davide Del Testa and Daniel Dworakowski and
ARXIV 2016
Bojarski2016ARXIV

  • Convolutional Neural Network that learns vehicle control using images
  • Left and right images are used for data augmentation to simulate specific off-center shifts while adapting the steering command
  • Approximated viewpoint transformations assuming points below horizon lie on a plane and above are infinitely far away
  • The final network outputs steering commands for the center camera only
  • Tested with simulations and with the NVIDIA DRIVE PX self-driving car
Back to paper selection
End-to-End Learning of Sensorimotor Control
End to End Learning for Self-Driving Cars [pdf] [slide]
Mariusz Bojarski and Davide Del Testa and Daniel Dworakowski and
ARXIV 2016
Bojarski2016ARXIV

  • Convolutional Neural Network that learns vehicle control using images
  • Left and right images are used for data augmentation to simulate specific off-center shifts while adapting the steering command
  • Approximated viewpoint transformations assuming points below horizon lie on a plane and above are infinitely far away
  • The final network outputs steering commands for the center camera only
  • Tested with simulations and with the NVIDIA DRIVE PX self-driving car
Back to paper selection
Tracking
Online Multiperson Tracking-by-Detection from a Single, Uncalibrated Camera [pdf] [slide]
Michael D. Breitenstein and Fabian Reichlin and Bastian Leibe and Esther Koller-Meier and Luc J. Van Gool
PAMI 2011
Breitenstein2011PAMI

  • Automatic detection and tracking of a variable number of persons in complex scenes using a monocular, potentially moving, uncalibrated camera
  • Multi-person tracking-by-detection in a particle filtering framework using unreliable information from
    • final high-confidence detections
    • continuous confidence of pedestrian detectors
    • online-trained, instance-specific classifiers as a graded observation model
  • Good performance on typical surveillance videos, webcam footage, or sports sequences
  • Datasets: ETHZ Central, TUD Campus and TUD Crossing, i-Lids AB, UBC Hockey, PETS09 S2.L1-S2.L3, ETHZ Standing, and a new Soccer dataset
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Shape-based Pedestrian Detection [pdf] [slide]
A. Broggi and M. Bertozzi and A. Fascioli and M. Sechi
IV 2000
Broggi2000IV

  • Detecting pedestrians on an experimental autonomous vehicle (the ARGO project)
  • Exploiting morphological characteristics (size, ratio, and shape) and vertical symmetry of human shape
  • A first coarse detection from a monocular image
  • Distance refinement using a stereo vision technique
  • Temporal correlation using the results from the previous frame to correct and validate the current ones
  • Integrated in the ARGO vehicle and tested in urban environments
  • Successful detections of whole pedestrians present in the image at a distance ranging from 10 to 40 meters
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Projects
PROUD - Public Road Urban Driverless-Car Test [pdf] [slide]
Alberto Broggi and Pietro Cerri and Stefano Debattisti and Maria Chiara Laghi and Paolo Medici and Daniele Molinari and Matteo Panciroli and Antonio Prioletti
TITS 2015
Broggi2015TITS

  • An autonomous driving test on urban roads and freeways open to regular traffic
  • Moving in a mapped and familiar scenario with the addition of the position of pedestrian crossings, traffic lights, and guard rails
  • Real-time perception of the world for static and dynamic obstacles
  • No need for precise 3D maps or world reconstruction
  • Details about the vehicle, and main layers: perception, planning, and control
  • Complex driving scenarios including roundabouts, junctions, pedestrian crossings, freeway junctions, and traffic lights
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Large Displacement Optical Flow: Descriptor Matching in Variational Motion Estimation [pdf] [slide]
Brox, T. and Malik, J.
PAMI 2011
Brox2011PAMI

  • Coarse-to-fine warping for optical flow estimation
    • can handle large displacements
    • small objects moving fast are problematic
  • Integration of rich descriptors into a variational formulation
    • Simple nearest neighbor search in coarse grid
    • Feature matches used as soft constraint in continuous approach
    • Continuation method: coarse-to-fine while reducing the importance of descriptor matches
  • Quantitative results only on Middlebury but real world qualitative results
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Map-Based Probabilistic Visual Self-Localization [pdf] [slide]
Marcus A. Brubaker and Andreas Geiger and Raquel Urtasun
PAMI 2016
Brubaker2016PAMI

  • Describes an affordable solution to vehicle self-localization which uses odometry computed from two video cameras & road maps as the sole inputs
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes a probabilistic model for which an efficient approximate inference algorithm is derived
    • The inference algorithm is able to utilize distributed computation in order to meet the real-time requirements of autonomous systems
    • Exploits freely available maps & visual odometry measurements, and is able to localize a vehicle to 4m on average after 52 seconds of driving
  • Evaluates on KITTI visual odometry dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Flow-Decoupled Normalized Reprojection Error for Visual Odometry [pdf] [slide]
Martin Buczko and Volker Willert
ITSC 2016
Buczko2016ITSC

  • Frame-to-frame feature-based ego-motion estimation using stereo cameras
  • Current approach: Rotation and translation of the ego-motion in two separate processes
  • An analysis of the characteristics of the optical flows and reprojection errors that are independently induced by each of the decoupled six degrees of freedom motion
  • A reprojection error that depends on the coordinates of the features
  • Decoupling the translation flow from the overall flow
    • Using an initial rotation estimate
    • Transforming the correspondences into a pure translation scenario
  • Evaluated on KITTI, the best translation error of all camera-based methods
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Semantic SegmentationLabel Propagation
Label propagation in complex video sequences using semi-supervised learning [pdf] [slide]
Budvytis, Ignas and Badrinarayanan, Vijay and Cipolla, Roberto
BMVC 2010
Budvytis2010BMVC

  • Directed graphical model for label propagation in long and complex video sequences
  • Given hand-labelled (semantic labels) start and end frames of a video sequence
  • Hybrid of generative label propagation and discriminative classification
  • EM based inference used for initial propagation and training of a multi-class classifier
  • Labels estimated by classifier are injected back into Bayesian network for another iteration
  • Iterative scheme has the ability to handle occlusions
  • Time-symmetric label propagation by appending the time-reversed sequence
  • Show advantage of learning from propagated labels
  • Quantitative and qualitative results on CamVid
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
A naturalistic open source movie for optical flow evaluation [pdf] [slide]
Butler, D. J. and Wulff, J. and Stanley, G. B. and Black, M. J.
ECCV 2012
Butler2012ECCV

  • Introduction of MPI-Sintel, a new data set based on an open source animated film
  • Contributions:
    • This data set has important features not present in the Middlebury flow evaluation: long sequences, large motions, specular reflections, motion blur, defocus blur, atmospheric effects.
    • Analysis of the statistical properties of the data suggesting it is sufficiently representative of natural movies to be useful
    • Introduction of new evaluation measures
    • Comparison of public-domain flow algorithms
    • Evaluation website that maintains the current ranking and analysis of methods
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Object Detection2D Object Detection
A Unified Multi-scale Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Fast Object Detection [pdf] [slide]
Zhaowei Cai and Quanfu Fan and Rogerio Schmidt Feris and Nuno Vasconcelos
ECCV 2016
Cai2016ECCV

  • Multi-scale CNN for fast multi-scale object detection
  • Proposal sub-network performs detection at multiple output layers to match objects at different scales
  • Complementary scale-specific detectors are combined to produce a strong multi-scale object detector
  • Unified network is learned end-to-end by optimizing a multi-task loss
  • Feature upsampling by deconvolution reduces the memory and computation costs in contrast to input upsampling
  • Evaluation on KITTI and Caltech
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Keyframe-based recognition and localization during video-rate parallel tracking and mapping [pdf] [slide]
Robert Oliver Castle and David W. Murray
IVC 2011
Castle2011IVC

  • Object recognition, reconstruction and localization for augmented reality
  • 3D map and keyframe poses are recovered at video-rate by bundle adjustment of FAST image features in the parallel tracking and mapping approach
  • Objects are detected and recognized using SIFT descriptors computed in keyframes and located by triangulation
  • Detected objects are automatically labelled on the user's display using predefined annotations
  • Demonstration using laboratory scenes and in more realistic applications, e.g. a guide to an art gallery
  • Limitation: Scaling to larger databases require adoption of hierarchical methods because of the computation time of SIFT features
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End-to-End Learning of Sensorimotor Control
DeepDriving: Learning Affordance for Direct Perception in Autonomous Driving [pdf] [slide]
Chenyi Chen and Ari Seff and Alain L. Kornhauser and Jianxiong Xiao
ICCV 2015
Chen2015ICCVa

  • Existing methods can be categorized into two major paradigms:
    • Mediated perception approaches that parse an entire scene to make a driving decision
    • Behavior reflex approaches that directly map an input image to a driving action by a regressor
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes to map input image to a small number of perception indicators
    • These indicators directly relate to the affordance of a road/traffic state for driving
    • This representation provides a set of compact descriptions of the scene to enable a controller to drive autonomously
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Semantic SegmentationLabel Propagation
Beat the MTurkers: Automatic Image Labeling from Weak 3D Supervision [pdf] [slide]
Chen, Liang-Chieh and Fidler, Sanja and Yuille, Alan L. and Urtasun, Raquel
CVPR 2014
Chen2014CVPRb

  • Automatically segmentation of objects given annotated 3D bounding boxes
  • Inference in a binary MRF using appearance models, stereo and/or noisy point clouds, 3D CAD models, and topological constraints
  • 10 to 20 labeled objects to train the system
  • Evaluated using 3D boxes available on KITTI
  • 86 IOU score on segmenting cars (performance of MTurkers)
  • It can be used to de-noise MTurk annotations.
  • Segmenting big cars is easier than smaller ones.
  • Each potential increases performance (CAD model most).
  • Same performance with stereo or LIDAR (highest using both)
  • Fast: 2 min for training and 44 seconds for full test set
  • Robust to low-resolution, saturation, noise, sparse point clouds, depth estimation errors and occlusions
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
Semantic Image Segmentation with Deep Convolutional Nets and Fully Connected CRFs [pdf] [slide]
Liang-Chieh Chen and George Papandreou and Iasonas Kokkinos and Kevin Murphy and Alan L. Yuille
ICLR 2015
Chen2015ICLR

  • Final layer of CNNs not sufficiently localized for accurate pixel-level object segmentation
  • Overcome poor localization by combining final CNN layer with fully connected Conditional Random Field 1
  • Using a fully convolutional VGG-16 network
  • Modified convolutional filters by applying the 'atrous' algorithm from wavelet community instead of subsampling
  • Significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in PASCAL VOC 2012 in semantic segmentation


1. Krahenbuhl, P. and Koltun, V. Efficient inference in fully connected crfs with gaussian edge potentials. In NIPS, 2011.
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Full Flow: Optical Flow Estimation By Global Optimization over Regular Grids [pdf] [slide]
Qifeng Chen and Vladlen Koltun
CVPR 2016
Chen2016CVPR

  • Discrete optimization over the full space of mappings for optical flow
  • Using a classical formulation with a normalized cross-correlation data term
  • Effective optimization over large label space with TRW-S
  • Min-convolution reduces the complexity of message passing from squared to linear
  • Reducing the space of mappings using a smaller resolution and max displacements
  • Epic Flow interpolation to fill inconsistent pixel and post processing for subpixel precision
  • State-of-the-art results on Sintel and KITTI 2015
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Object Detection2D Object Detection
Monocular 3D Object Detection for Autonomous Driving [pdf] [slide]
Xiaozhi Chen and Kaustav Kundu and Ziyu Zhang and Huimin Ma and Sanja Fidler and Raquel Urtasun
CVPR 2016
Chen2016CVPRa

  • 3D object detection from a single monocular image in the domain of autonomous driving
  • Generates a set of candidate class-specific object proposals, which are then run through a standard CNN pipeline to obtain high-quality object detections
  • Focus of this paper is on proposal generation
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes an energy minimization approach that places object candidates in 3D using the fact that objects should be on the ground-plane
    • Scores each candidate box projected to the image plane via several intuitive potentials encoding semantic segmentation, contextual information, size and location priors and typical object shape
  • Evaluates on KITTI benchmark
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Object Detection2D Object Detection
3D Object Proposals using Stereo Imagery for Accurate Object Class Detection [pdf] [slide]
Xiaozhi Chen and Kaustav Kundu and Yukun Zhu and Huimin Ma and Sanja Fidler and Raquel Urtasun
ARXIV 2016
Chen2016ARXIV

  • High-accuracy 3D objection detection in autonomous driving scenario
  • Sensory-fusion framework that predicts oriented 3D bboxes using LIDAR point cloud and RGB images
  • Encode the sparse 3D point cloud with a compact multi-view representation
  • Proposal network generates 3D candidate boxes from bird's eye view representation of the point cloud
  • Deep fusion scheme combines region-wise multi-view features and enables interactions between intermediate layers
  • Evaluation on the KITTI benchmark outperforming state-of-the-art in 3D localization and 3D detection
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Object Detection3D Object Detection from 3D Point Clouds
Multi-View 3D Object Detection Network for Autonomous Driving [pdf] [slide]
Xiaozhi Chen and Huimin Ma and Ji Wan and Bo Li and Tian Xia
ARXIV 2016
Chen2016ARXIVa

  • 3D object detection using both LIDAR point cloud and RGB images (predicting oriented 3D bounding boxes)
  • LIDAR point cloud for more accurate 3D locations, image-based methods for higher accuracy in terms of 2D box evaluation
  • Multi-View 3D networks (MV3D) using two sub-networks
  • 3D proposal generation network utilizing a bird's eye view representation of point cloud
  • Multi-view feature fusion network:
    • Region-wise features from multiple views
    • Interactions between intermediate layers of different paths
    • Superior performance over the early/late fusion scheme
  • Using drop-path training and auxiliary loss
  • Evaluated on KITTI benchmark, outperforming state-of-the-art by large margins
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TrackingState-of-the-Art on KITTI
Near-Online Multi-target Tracking with Aggregated Local Flow Descriptor [pdf] [slide]
Wongun Choi
ICCV 2015
Choi2015ICCV

  • Near-Online Multi-target Tracking (NOMT) algorithm formulated as global data association between targets and detections in temporal window
  • Designing an accurate affinity measure to associate detections and estimate the likelihood of matching
  • Aggregated Local Flow Descriptor (ALFD) encodes the relative motion pattern using long term interest point trajectories
  • Integration of multiple cues including ALFD metric, target dynamics, appearance similarity and long term trajectory regularization
  • Solves the association problem with a parallelized junction tree algorithm
  • Best accuracy with significant margins on KITTI and MOT dataset
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Scene UnderstandingIndoor 3D Scene Understanding
Understanding Indoor Scenes Using 3D Geometric Phrases [pdf] [slide]
W. Choi and Y. -W. Chao and C. Pantofaru and S. Savarese
CVPR 2013
Choi2013CVPR

  • Proposes a novel unified framework that can reason about the semantic class of an indoor scene, its spatial layout, and the identity and layout of objects within the space
  • Contributions:
    • Presents a hierarchical model for learning & reasoning about indoor scenes
    • Proposes a 3D Geometric Phrase Model to capture semantic & geometric relationships between objects which co-occur in the same 3D configuration
    • Shows that this model effectively explains scene semantics, geometry & object groupings while also improving individual object detections
  • Evaluates on new indoor-scene-object introduced in the paper
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TrackingTracking with two cameras
A General Framework for Tracking Multiple People from a Moving Camera [pdf] [slide]
W. Choi and C. Pantofaru and S. Savarese
PAMI 2013
Choi2013PAMI

  • Tracking multiple, possibly interacting, people from a mobile vision platform
  • Joint estimation of camera's ego-motion and the people's trajectory in 3D
  • Tracking problem formulated as finding a MAP solution and solved using Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo Particle Filtering
  • Combination of multiple observation cues face, skin color, depth-based shape, motion, and target specific appearance-based detector
  • Modelling interaction with two modes: repulsion and group movement
  • Automatic detection of static features for camera estimation
  • Evaluation on the challenging ETH dataset and a Kinect RGB-D dataset containing dynamic in- and outdoor scenes
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
The Cityscapes Dataset for Semantic Urban Scene Understanding [pdf] [slide]
Cordts, Marius and Omran, Mohamed and Ramos, Sebastian and Rehfeld, Timo and Enzweiler, Markus and Benenson, Rodrigo and Franke, Uwe and Roth, Stefan and Schiele, Bernt
CVPR 2016
Cordts2016CVPR

  • A benchmark suite and large-scale dataset to train and test approaches for pixel-level and instance-level semantic labeling
  • Specially tailored for autonomous driving in an urban environment
  • Cityscapes is comprised of a large, diverse set of stereo video sequences recorded in streets from 50 different cities
    • 5000 of these images have high quality pixel-level annotations
    • 20000 additional images have coarse annotations to enable methods that leverage large volumes of weakly-labeled data
  • Develops a sound evaluation methodology for semantic labeling by introducing a novel evaluation measure
  • Evaluates several state-of-the-art approaches on the benchmark
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RepresentationsStixels
Object-Level Priors for Stixel Generation [pdf] [slide]
Marius Cordts and Lukas Schneider and Markus Enzweiler and Uwe Franke and Stefan Roth
GCPR 2014
Cordts2014GCPR

  • Existing stixels representations are solely based on dense stereo and a strongly simplifying world model with a nearly planar road surface and perpendicular obstacles
  • Whenever depth measurements are noisy or the world model is violated, Stixels are prone to error
  • Contributions:
    • Shows a principled way to incorporate top-down prior knowledge from object detectors into the Stixel generation
    • The additional information not only improves the representation of the detected object classes, but also of other parts in the scene, e.g. the freespace
  • Evaluates on stereo sequence introduced in the paper
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
3D Urban Scene Modeling Integrating Recognition and Reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Cornelis, N. and Leibe, B. and Cornelis, K. and Van Gool, L. J.
IJCV 2008
Cornelis2008IJCV

  • Fast and memory efficient 3D city modelling
  • Application: a pre-visualization of a required traffic manoeuvre for navigation systems
  • Simplified geometry assumptions while still having compact models
    • Adapted dense stereo algorithm with ruled-surface approximation
  • Integrating object recognition for detecting cars in video and then localizing them in 3D (not real-time yet)
  • 3D reconstruction and localization benefit from each other.
  • Tested on three stereo sequences annotated with GPS/INS measurements
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
FAB-MAP: Probabilistic Localization and Mapping in the Space of Appearance [pdf] [slide]
Cummins, Mark and Newman, Paul
IJRR 2008
Cummins2008IJRR

  • Probabilistic approach to recognize places based on their appearance (loop closure detection)
  • Topological SLAM by learning a generative model of place appearances using bag-of-words
  • Combination of appearance words occur because they are generated from common objects
  • Approximation of a discrete distribution using Chow Liu algorithm
  • Robust in visually repetitive environments
  • Complexity linear in number of places and the algorithm is suitable for online loop closure detection in mobile robotics
  • Demonstration by detecting loop closures over 2km path in an initially unknown outdoor environment
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Stereo odometry based on careful feature selection and tracking [pdf] [slide]
Igor Cvisic and Ivan Petrovic
ECMR 2015
Cvisic2015ECMR

  • Stereo visual odometry based on feature selection and tracking (SOFT) for us: a good taxonomy is provided in intro
  • Careful selection of a subset of stable features and their tracking through the frames
  • Separate estimation of rotation (the five point) and translation (the three point)
  • Evaluated on KITTI, outperforming all
  • Pose error of 1.03 with processing speed above 10 Hz
  • A modified IMU-aided version of the algorithm
    • An IMU for outlier rejection and Kalman filter for rotation refinement
    • Fast and suitable for embedded systems at 20 Hz on an ODROID U3 ARM-based embedded computer
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
Instance-Aware Semantic Segmentation via Multi-Task Network Cascades [pdf] [slide]
Dai, Jifeng and He, Kaiming and Sun, Jian
CVPR 2016
Dai2016CVPR

  • Limitations of existing methods for instance segmentation using CNNs
    • Slow at inference time because they require mask propasal methods
    • Don't take advantage of deep features and large amount of training data
  • End-to-end training of Multi-task Network Cascades for 3 tasks of differentiating instances, estimating masks & categorizing objects
  • Two orders of magnitude faster than previous systems
  • State-of-the-art on PASCAL VOC & MS COCO 2015
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Dense Reconstruction Using 3D Object Shape Priors [pdf] [slide]
Dame, A. and Prisacariu, V.A. and Ren, C.Y. and Reid, I.
CVPR 2013
Dame2013CVPR

  • Incorporation of object-specific knowledge into SLAM
  • Current approaches
    • Limited to the reconstruction of visible surfaces
    • Photo-consistency error, sensitive to specularities
  • Initial dense representation using photo-consistency
  • Detection using a standard 2D sliding-window object-class detector
  • A novel energy to find the 6D pose and shape of the object
    • Shape-prior represented using GP-LVM
  • Efficient fusion of the dense reconstruction with the reconstructed object shape
  • Better reconstruction in terms of clarity, accuracy and completeness
  • Faster and more reliable convergence of the segmentation with 3D data
  • Evaluated using dense reconstruction from KinectFusion
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Stereo Visual Odometry Without Temporal Filtering [pdf] [slide]
Joerg Deigmoeller and Julian Eggert
GCPR 2016
Deigmoeller2016GCPR

  • Ego-motion estimation from stereo avoiding temporal filtering and relying exclusively on pure measurements
  • Stereo camera set-up is the easiest and leads currently to the most accurate results
  • Two parts
    • Scene flow estimation with a combination of disparity and optical flow on Harris corners
    • Pose estimation with a P6P method (perspective from 6 points) encapsulated in a RANSAC framework
  • Careful selections of precise measurements by purely varying geometric constraints on optical flow measure
  • Slim method within the top ranks of KITTI without filtering like bundle adjustment or Kalman filtering
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Monte Carlo Localization for Mobile Robots [pdf] [slide]
Frank Dellaert and Dieter Fox and Wolfram Burgard and Sebastian Thrun
ICRA 1999
Dellaert1999ICRA

  • Presents the Monte Carlo method for localization for mobile robots
  • Represents uncertainty by maintaining a set of samples that are randomly drawn from it instead of describing the probability density function itself
  • Contributions:
    • In contrast to Kalman filtering based techniques, it is able to represent multi-modal distributions and thus can globally localize a robot
    • Reduces the amount of memory required compared to grid-based Markov localization
    • More accurate than Markov localization with a fixed cell size, as the state represented in the samples is not discretized
  • Evaluates on datasets introduced in the paper
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Pedestrian Detection: An Evaluation of the State of the Art [pdf] [slide]
P. Dollar and C. Wojek and B. Schiele and P. Perona
PAMI 2011
Dollar2011PAMI

  • Pedestrian detection methods are hard to compare because of multiple datasets and varying evaluation protocols
  • Extensive evaluation of the state of the art in a unified framework
  • Large, well-annotated and realistic monocular pedestrian detection dataset
  • Refined per-frame evaluation methodology
  • Evaluation of sixteen pre-trained state-of-the-art detectors across six datasets
  • Performance of state-of-the-art is disappointing at low resolutions (far distant pedestrians) and in case of partial occlusions
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
FlowNet: Learning Optical Flow with Convolutional Networks [pdf] [slide]
A. Dosovitskiy and P. Fischer and E. Ilg and P. Haeusser and C. Hazirbas and V. Golkov and P. v.d. Smagt and D. Cremers and T. Brox
ICCV 2015
Dosovitskiy2015ICCV

  • Network is trained end-to-end
  • The contracting part of the network extracts rich feature representation
  • Simple architecture : Process 2 stacked images jointly
  • Alternative architecture : Process images separately, then correlate their features at different locations
  • Expanding part of network produces high resolution flow
  • Train networks on large "Flying chairs" dataset with 2D motion of rendered chairs
  • Evaluated on Sintel and KITTI. Beats state of art among real time methods
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Ground Plane Estimation Using a Hidden Markov Model [pdf] [slide]
Ralf Dragon and Luc J. Van Gool
CVPR 2014
Dragon2014CVPR

  • Estimation of ground plane orientation and location in monocular video sequences from a moving observer
  • State-continuous HMM with the ego motion and ground plane normal as hidden states
  • Sample different hypotheses for pairs of frames using homography decomposition
  • Refined estimates are sampled with blocked Gibbs sampling
  • Works robustly in large variety of sequences including tilted cameras or heavily blurred and wobbling images
  • Using the approach for visual odometry achieved state-of-the-art distance errors but one magnitude lower angular errors
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ReconstructionStereo
Semi-Global Matching: A Principled Derivation in Terms of Message Passing [pdf] [slide]
Amnon Drory and Carsten Haubold and Shai Avidan and Fred A. Hamprecht
GCPR 2014
Drory2014GCPR

  • First principled explanation of SGM
    • trivial to implement, extremely fast, and high ranking on benchmarks
    • still a successful heuristic with no theoretical characterization
  • Its exact relation to belief propagation and tree-reweighted message passing
    • SGM's 8 direction scan-lines is an approximation to the optimal labelling of the entire graph.
    • SGM amounts to the first iteration of TRW-T on a MRF with pairwise energies that have been scaled by a constant and known factor.
  • Outcome: an uncertainty measure for the MAP labeling of an MRF
  • Qualitative results on Middlebury Benchmark
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
Towards Large-Scale City Reconstruction from Satellites [pdf] [slide]
Liuyun Duan and Florent Lafarge
ECCV 2016
Duan2016ECCV

  • 3D city models from stereo pair of satellite images in a few minutes
  • Geometric atomic convex polygons
  • A joint classification and reconstruction for the semantic class (ground, roof, and facade) and the elevation of each polygon
  • Experiments on QuickBird2, WorldView2, and Pleiades satellite images
  • Not as accurate as Lidar, but produces fast, compact, and semantic-aware models robust to low resolution and occlusion problems
  • Better compared to Digital Surface Models
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
SegMatch: Segment based loop-closure for 3D point clouds [pdf] [slide]
Renaud Dube and Daniel Dugas and Elena Stumm and Juan I. Nieto and Roland Siegwart and Cesar Cadena
ARXIV 2016
Dube2016ARXIV

  • Loop-closure detection on 3D data
  • Existing methods based on local features suffer from robustness to environment changes while methods based on global features are viewpoint dependent
  • Proposes SegMatch, a loop-closure detection algorithm based on the matching of 3D segments
  • Method:
    • extracts and describes segments from a 3D point cloud
    • matches them to segments from already visited places
    • uses a geometric verification step to propose loop-closures candidates
  • Advantage of this segment-based technique is its ability to compress the point cloud into a set of distinct and discriminative elements for loop-closure detection
  • First paper to present a real-time algorithm for performing loop-closure detection and localization in 3D laser data on the basis of segments
  • Evaluates on KITTI odometry dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Direct Sparse Odometry [pdf] [slide]
Jakob Engel and Vladlen Koltun and Daniel Cremers
ARXIV 2016
Engel2016ARXIV

  • The direct and sparse formulation for monocular visual odometry
  • A fully direct probabilistic model with joint optimization of all model parameters, including camera poses, camera intrinsics, and geometry parameters (inverse depth)
  • Evaluating the photometric error for each point over a small neighbourhood of pixels
  • Real-time by omitting the smoothness prior and sampling pixels evenly throughout the images instead
  • No keypoint detectors or descriptors
  • Integrating a full photometric calibration accounting for exposure time, lens vignetting, and non-linear response functions
  • Evaluated on three different datasets comprising several hours of video
  • Comparison of direct to indirect approach: less robust to geometric noise, but superior accuracy on well-calibrated data
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
LSD-SLAM: Large-Scale Direct Monocular SLAM [pdf] [slide]
Jakob Engel and Thomas Schops and Daniel Cremers
ECCV 2014
Engel2014ECCV

  • Feature-less monocular SLAM algorithm which allows to build large-scale maps
  • Novel direct tracking method that detects loop closures and scale-drift using similarity transform in 3D
  • Direct image alignment with 3D reconstruction in real-time
  • Pose-graph of keyframes with associated probabilistic semi-dense depth maps
  • Semi-dense depth maps are obtained by filtering over a large number of pixelwise small-baseline stereo comparisons
  • Probabilistic solution to include the effect of noisy depth values into tracking
  • Evaluation on TUM RGB-D benchmark
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Large-scale direct SLAM with stereo cameras [pdf] [slide]
Jakob Engel and Jorg Stuckler and Daniel Cremers
IROS 2015
Engel2015IROS

  • Large-Scale Direct SLAM algorithm for stereo cameras (Stereo LSD-SLAM) that runs in real-time
  • Direct alignment of the images based on photoconsistency of all high contrast pixel in contrast to sparse interest-point based methods
  • Couple temporal multi-view stereo from monocular LSD-SLAM with static stereo from a fixed-baseline stereo camera setup
  • Incorporating both disparity source allow to estimate depth of pixels that are under-constrained in fixed baseline stereo
  • Fixed baseline avoids scale-drift that occurs in monocular SLAM
  • Robust approach to enforce illumination invariance
  • State-of-the-art results in KITTI and EuRoC Challenge 3 for micro aerial vehicles
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Semi-Dense Visual Odometry for a Monocular Camera [pdf] [slide]
J. Engel and J. Sturm and D. Cremers
ICCV 2013
Engel2013ICCV

  • Real-time visual odometry method for a monocular camera
  • Continuously estimate a semi-dense inverse depth map which is used to track the motion of the camera
  • Depth estimation for pixel with non-negligible gradients using multi-view stereo
  • Each estimate is represented as a Gaussian probability distribution over the inverse depth (corresponds to update step of Kalman filter)
  • Reference frame is selected such that the observation angle is small
  • Propagate depth maps from frame to frame (corresponding to prediction step of Kalman filter) and refine with new stereo depth measurements
  • Whole image alignment using depth estimates for tracking
  • Comparable tracking performance with fully dense methods without requiring a depth sensor
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Object Detection3D Object Detection from 3D Point Clouds
Vote3Deep: Fast Object Detection in 3D Point Clouds Using Efficient Convolutional Neural Networks [pdf] [slide]
Martin Engelcke and Dushyant Rao and Dominic Zeng Wang and Chi Hay Tong and Ingmar Posner
ARXIV 2016
Engelcke2016ARXIV

  • Proposes a computationally efficient approach to detecting objects natively in 3D point clouds using convolutional neural networks
  • Contributions:
    • Construction of efficient convolutional layers as basic building blocks for CNN-based point cloud processing by leveraging a voting mechanism exploiting the inherent sparsity in the input data
    • The use of rectified linear units and an L1 sparsity penalty to specifically encourage data sparsity in intermediate representations in order to exploit sparse convolution layers throughout the entire CNN stack
    • First work to propose sparse convolutional layers and L1 regularisation for efficient large-scale processing of 3D data
  • Evaluates on KITTI object detection benchmark
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
A mixed generative-discriminative framework for pedestrian classification [pdf] [slide]
Enzweiler, M. and Gavrila, D.M.
CVPR 2008
Enzweiler2008CVPR

  • Pedestrian classification utilizing synthesized virtual samples of a learned generative model to enhance a discriminative model
  • Address bottleneck caused by the scarcity of samples of the target class
  • Generative model captures prior knowledge about pedestrian class in terms of probabilistic shape and texture models
  • Selective sampling, by means of probabilistic active learning, guides the training process towards the most informative samples
  • Virtual samples can be considered as a regularization term to the real data
  • Signification improvement in classification performance in large-scale real-world datasets
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Monocular Pedestrian Detection: Survey and Experiments [pdf] [slide]
M. Enzweiler and D. M. Gavrila
PAMI 2009
Enzweiler2009PAMI

  • Overview of the current state of the art in person detection from both methodological and experimental perspectives
  • Survey: main components of a pedestrian detection system and the underlying model: hypothesis generation (ROI selection), classification (model matching), and tracking
  • Experimental study: comparing state-of-the-art systems
  • Experiments on a dataset captured onboard a vehicle driving through urban environment
  • Results:
    • HOG/linSVM at higher image resolutions and lower processing speeds
    • Wavelet-based AdaBoost cascade approach at lower image resolutions and (near) real-time processing speeds
  • Better performance for all by incorporating temporal integration and/or restrictions of the search space based on scene knowledge
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RepresentationsStixels
From stixels to objects - A conditional random field based approach [pdf] [slide]
Friedrich Erbs and Beate Schwarz and Uwe Franke
IV 2013
Erbs2013IV

  • Detection and tracking of moving traffic participants from a mobile platform using a stereo camera system
  • Bayesian segmentation approach based on the Dynamic Stixel World
  • In real-time using alpha-expansion multi-class graph cut optimization scheme
  • Integrating 3D and motion features, spatio-temporal prior knowledge, and radar sensor in a CRF
  • Evaluated quantitatively in various challenging traffic scenes
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RepresentationsStixels
Stixmentation - Probabilistic Stixel based Traffic Scene Labeling [pdf] [slide]
Friedrich Erbs and Beate Schwarz and Uwe Franke
BMVC 2012
Erbs2012BMVC

  • Detection of moving objects from a mobile platform
  • Multi-class (street, obstacle, sky) traffic scene segmentation approach based on Dynamic Stixel World, an efficient super-pixel object representation
  • Each stixel assigned to a quantized maneuver motion or to static background
  • Using dense stereo depth maps obtained by SGM
  • Conditional Random Field using 3D and motion features and spatio-temporal prior
  • Real-time performance and evaluated in various challenging urban traffic scenes
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TrackingTracking with two cameras
Robust multi-person tracking from a mobile platform [pdf] [slide]
A. Ess and B. Leibe and K. Schindler and L. Van Gool
PAMI 2009
Ess2009PAMI

  • Multi-person tracking in busy pedestrian zones using a stereo rig on a mobile platform
  • Joint estimation of camera position, stereo depth, object detection, and tracking
  • Object-object interactions and temporal links to past frames on a graphical model
  • Two-step approach for intractable inference (approximate):
    • First solve a simplified version to estimate the scene geometry and object detections per frame (without interactions and temporal continuity)
    • Conditioned on these results, object interactions, tracking, and prediction
  • Combining Belief Propagation and Quadratic Pseudo-Boolean Optimization
  • Automatic failure detection and correction mechanisms
  • Evaluated on challenging real-world data (over 5,000 video frame pairs)
  • Robust multi-object tracking performance in very complex scenes
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Scene Understanding
Segmentation-Based Urban Traffic Scene Understanding [pdf] [slide]
Ess, A. and Mueller, T. and Grabner, H. and L. van Gool
BMVC 2009
Ess2009BMVC

  • Proposes a method to recognise the traffic scene in front of a moving vehicle with respect to the road topology and the existence of objects
  • Contributions:
    • Uses a two-stage system, where the first stage abstracts the image by a rough super-pixel segmentation of the scene
    • Uses this meta representation in a second stage to construct features set for classifier that is able to distinguish between different road types as well as detect the existence of commonly encountered objects
    • Shows that by relying on an intermediate stage, can effectively abstract from peculiarities of the underlying image data
  • Evaluates on two urban data sets, covering day light and dusk conditions
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) Challenge [pdf] [slide]
Everingham, M. and Van~Gool, L. and Williams, C. K. I. and Winn, J. and Zisserman, A.
IJCV 2010
Everingham2010IJCV

  • A benchmark with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures
    • Two principal challenges: classification and detection
    • Two subsidiary challenges: pixel-level segmentation and person layout estimation
  • Dataset: challenging images and high quality annotation, with a standard evaluation methodology
    • Variability in object size, orientation, pose, illumination, position and occlusion
    • No systematic bias for centred objects or good illumination
    • Consistent, accurate, and exhaustive annotations for class, bounding box, viewpoint, truncation, and difficult
  • Competition: measure the state of the art each year
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TrackingState-of-the-Art on KITTI
Improving Multi-frame Data Association with Sparse Representations [pdf] [slide]
Loc Fagot-Bouquet and Romaric Audigier and Yoann Dhome and Frederic Lerasle
ECCV 2016
Fagot-Bouquet2016ECCV

  • Multiple object tracking still difficult due to appearance variations, occlusions and detection failures
  • Sparse representations-based models successful in single object tracking
  • Combining a sparse representation-based appearance model with a sliding window tracking method
  • Formulate the multi-frame data association step as an energy minimization problem
  • Efficiently exploits sparse representations of all detections
  • Structured sparsity-inducing norm is used to compute representations more suited to the tracking context
  • Evaluation on MOTChallenge benchmarks
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation with Multiple Frames
Joint 2D-3D temporally consistent semantic segmentation of street scenes [pdf] [slide]
Floros, G. and Leibe, B.
CVPR 2012
Floros2012CVPR

  • Proposes a novel Conditional Random Field (CRF) formulation for the semantic scene labeling problem which is able to enforce temporal consistency between consecutive video frames and take advantage of the 3D scene geometry to improve segmentation quality
  • Uses 3D scene reconstruction as a means to temporally couple the individual image segmentations, allowing information flow from 3D geometry to the 2D image space
  • Details:
    • Optimizes the semantic labels in a temporal window around the image we are interested in
    • Augments the higher-order cliques of the CRF with the sets of pixels that are projections of the same 3D point in different images
    • Since these new higher-order cliques contain different projections of the same 3D point, the labels of the pixels inside the clique should be consistent
    • Forms a grouping constraint on these pixels
  • Evaluates on Leuven and City stereo dataset
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
Data Processing Algorithms for Generating Textured 3D Building Facade Meshes from Laser Scans and Camera Images [pdf] [slide]
Christian Fruh and Siddharth Jain and Avideh Zakhor
IJCV 2005
Frueh2005IJCV

  • Generating textured facade meshes of cities from a series of vertical 2D surface scans and camera images
  • Set of data processing algorithms that cope with imperfections and non-idealities
  • Data is divided into easy-to-handle quasi linear segments and sequential topological order of scans
  • Depth images are obtained by transforming the divided segments and used to detect Dominant building structures
  • Large holes are filled by planar, horizontal interpolation for the background and horizontal, vertical interpolation or by copy-paste methods for foreground objects
  • Demonstrated on a large set of data of downtown Berkeley
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Building Rome on a Cloudless Day [pdf] [slide]
Frahm, Jan-Michael and Fite-Georgel, Pierre and Gallup, David and Johnson, Tim and Raguram, Rahul and Wu, Changchang and Jen, Yi-Hung and Dunn, Enrique and Clipp, Brian and Lazebnik, Svetlana and Pollefeys, Marc
ECCV 2010
Frahm2010ECCV

  • Dense 3D reconstruction from unregistered Internet-scale photo collections
  • 3 million images within a day on a single PC
  • Geometric and appearance constraints to obtain a highly parallel implementation
  • Extension of appearance-based clustering 1 and stereo fusion 2
  • Geometric cluster verification using a fast RANSAC method
  • Local iconic scene graph reconstruction and dense model computation using views obtained from iconic scene graph
  • Two orders of magnitude higher performance on an order of magnitude larger dataset than state-of-the-art


1. Li, X., Wu, C., Zach, C., Lazebnik, S., Frahm, J.M.: Modeling and recognition of landmark image collections using iconic scene graphs. In: ECCV. (2008)
2. Gallup, D., Pollefeys, M., Frahm, J.M.: 3d reconstruction using an n-layer heightmap. In: DAGM (2010)
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ReconstructionStereo
Real-Time Stereo Vision for Urban Traffic Scene Understanding [pdf] [slide]
U. Franke and A. Joos
IV 2000
Franke2000IV

  • Presents a precise correlation-based stereo vision approach that allows real-time interpretation of traflc scenes and autonomous Stop & Go on a standard PC
  • The high speed is achieved by means of a multi-resolution analysis
  • It delivers the stereo disparities with sub-pixel accuracy and allows precise distance estimates
  • Develops two different stereo approaches:
    • Real-Time Stereo Analysis based on Local Features
    • Real-Time Stereo Analysis based on Correlation
  • Shows applications of stereo approaches to obstacle detection and tracking and analysis of free space in front of the car
  • Evaluates on self-recorded dataset
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Motion & Pose Estimation3D Motion Estimation -- Scene Flow
6D-Vision: Fusion of Stereo and Motion for Robust Environment Perception [pdf] [slide]
Franke, Uwe and Rabe, Clemens and Badino, Hernan and Gehrig, Stefan
DAGM 2005
Franke2005DAGM

  • Obstacle avoidance in mobile robotics needs a robust perception of the environment
  • Simultaneous estimation of depth and motion for image sequences
  • 3D position and 3D motion are estimated with Kalman-Filters
  • Ego-motion is assumed to be known (they use inertial sensors)
  • 2000 points are tracked with KLT tracker
  • Multiple filters with different initializations improve the convergence rate
  • Only qualitative results
  • Runs in real-time
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
A New Performance Measure and Evaluation Benchmark for Road Detection Algorithms [pdf] [slide]
Jannik Fritsch and Tobias Kuehnl and Andreas Geiger
ITSC 2013
Fritsch2013ITSC

  • Open-access dataset and benchmark for road area and ego-lane detection
  • Motivation: finding the boundaries of unmarked or weakly marked roads and lanes as they appear in inner-city and rural environments
  • 600 annotated training and test images of high variability from three challenging real-world city road types derived from the KITTI dataset
  • Evaluation using 2D Birds Eye View (BEV) space
  • Behavior-based metric by fitting a driving corridor to road detection results in the BEV
  • Comparison of state-of-the-art road detection algorithms using classical pixel-level metrics in perspective and BEV space as well as the novel behavior-based performance measure
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Projects
Toward automated driving in cities using close-to-market sensors: An overview of the V-Charge Project [pdf] [slide]
Paul Timothy Furgale and Ulrich Schwesinger and Martin Rufli and Wojciech Derendarz and Hugo Grimmett and Peter Muhlfellner and Stefan Wonneberger and Julian Timpner and Stephan Rottmann and Bo Li and Bastian Schmidt and Thien-Nghia Nguyen and Elena Cardarelli and Stefano Cattani and Stefan Bruning and Sven Horstmann and Martin Stellmacher and Holger Mielenz and Kevin Koser and Markus Beermann and Christian Hane and Lionel Heng and Gim Hee Lee and Friedrich Fraundorfer and Rene Iser and Rudolph Triebel and Ingmar Posner and Paul Newman and Lars C. Wolf and Marc Pollefeys and Stefan Brosig and Jan Effertz and Cedric Pradalier and Roland Siegwart
IV 2013
Furgale2013IV

  • Electric automated car outfitted with close-to-market sensors
  • Fully operational system including automated navigation and parking
  • Dense map obtained from motion stereo and a volumetric grid
  • Sparse map is built from state-of-the-art SLAM
  • Road network represented by RoadGraph, a directed graph of connected lanes, parking lots and other semantic annotations
  • Localization by extensive data association between sparse map and observed frame
  • Situational awareness with a robust and accurate scene reconstruction using dense stereo, object detection and tracking, and map fusion
  • Path planing and motion control with a hierarchical approach consisting of a mission planer, specific processors for onlane driving and parking maneuvers and a motion control module
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RepresentationsStixels
Stixels Motion Estimation without Optical Flow Computation [pdf] [slide]
Bertan Gunyel and Rodrigo Benenson and Radu Timofte and Luc J. Van Gool
ECCV 2012
Guenyel2012ECCV

  • Traditionally, motion estimation between two frames is done using optical flow methods, which are computationally expensive
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes the first algorithm for stixels motion estimation without requiring the computation of optical flow. This enables much faster computation while keeping good quality
    • The stixel motion can be viewed as a matching problem between stixels in 2 frames
    • Computes matching cost matrix. Optimal motion assignment for each stixel can be solved via dynamic programming
    • Presents the first evaluation of the stixels motion quality by comparing against two baselines
  • Evaluates on the ``Bahnhof" sequence
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
Superpixel Convolutional Networks Using Bilateral Inceptions [pdf] [slide]
Raghudeep Gadde and Varun Jampani and Martin Kiefel and Daniel Kappler and Peter V. Gehler
ECCV 2016
Gadde2016ECCV

  • Adding bilateral filtering to CNNs for semantic segmentation: "Bilateral Inception" (BI)
  • Idea: Pixels that are spatially and photometrically similar are more likely to have the same label.
  • End-to-end learning of feature spaces for bilateral filtering and other parameters
  • Standard bilateral filters with Gaussian kernels, at different feature scales
  • Information propagation between (super) pixels while respecting image edges
  • Full resolution segmentation result from the lower resolution solution of a CNN
  • Inserting BI into several existing CNN architectures before/after the last 1 times 1 convolution (FC) layers
  • Improved results on Pascal VOC12, Materials in Context, and Cityscapes datasets
  • Better and faster than DenseCRF
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
Virtual Worlds as Proxy for Multi-Object Tracking Analysis [pdf] [slide]
Gaidon, Adrien and Wang, Qiao and Cabon, Yohann and Vig, Eleonora
CVPR 2016
Gaidon2016CVPR

  • Modern CV algorithms rely on expensive data acquisition and manual labeling
  • Generation of fully labeled, dynamic and photo-realistic proxy virtual worlds
  • Allow to change conditions of the proxy world and to study rare events or difficult to observe conditions that might occur in practice (what-if analysis)
  • Efficient real-to-virtual world cloning method validated by creating a dataset called Virtual KITTI
  • Accurate ground truth for object detection, tracking, scene and instance segmentation, depth and optical flow
  • Gap in performance between leaning from real and virtual KITTI is small
  • Pre-training with Virtual KITTI and final training with KITTI gave best results (virtual data augmentation)
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ReconstructionStereo
Variable baseline/resolution stereo [pdf] [slide]
Gallup, D. and Frahm, J. M. and Mordohai, P. and Pollefeys, M.
CVPR 2008
Gallup2008CVPR

  • Presents a novel multi-baseline, multi-resolution stereo method, which varies the baseline and resolution proportionally to depth to obtain a reconstruction in which the depth error is constant
  • In contrast to traditional stereo, in which the error grows quadratically with depth, which means that the accuracy in the near range far exceeds that of the far range
  • By selecting an appropriate baseline and resolution (image pyramid), the algorithm computes a depthmap which has these properties:
    • the depth accuracy is constant over the reconstructed volume, by increasing the baseline to increase accuracy in the far range
    • the computational effort is spread evenly over the volume by reducing the resolution in the near range
    • the angle of triangulation is held constant w.r.t. depth
  • Evaluates on self-recorded dataset
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ReconstructionStereo
Piecewise planar and non-planar stereo for urban scene reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Gallup, David and Frahm, Jan-Michael and Pollefeys, Marc
CVPR 2010
Gallup2010CVPR

  • Depth estimation in indoor and urban outdoor scenes
  • Planarity assumptions are problematic in presence of non-planar objects
  • Stereo method capable of handling more general scenes containing planar and non-planar regions
  • Segmentation by multi-view photoconsistency and color-/texture-based classifier into piecewise planar and non-planar regions
  • Standard multi-view stereo used to model non-planar regions
  • Fusion of plane hypotheses across multiple overlapping views ensure consistent 3D reconstruction
  • Tested with street-side sequences captured by two vehicle-mounted color-cameras
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Tracking
Multi-cue pedestrian detection and tracking from a moving vehicle [pdf] [slide]
Gavrila, D. M. and Munder, S.
IJCV 2007
Gavrila2007IJCV

  • Mutli-cue system for real-time detection and tracking of pedestrians from a moving vehicle
  • Cascade of modules utilizing complementary visual criteria to narrow down the search space
  • Integration of sparse stereo-based ROI generation, shape-based detection, texture-based classification and dense stereo-based verification
  • Mixture-of-experts involving texture-based component classifiers weighted by the outcome of shape matching
  • alpha-beta tracker using the Hungarian method for data association
  • Analysis of the performance and interaction of the individual modules
  • Evaluation in difficult urban traffic conditions
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ReconstructionStereo
A Real-Time Low-Power Stereo Vision Engine Using Semi-Global Matching. [pdf] [slide]
Gehrig, Stefan K. and Eberli, Felix and Meyer, Thomas
ICVS 2009
Gehrig2009ICVS

  • Low-power implementations of real-time stereo vision systems not available in existing literature
  • Contributions:
    • Introduces a real-time low-power global stereo engine based on semi-global matching (SGM)
    • Achieves real time performance by parallelization of the path calculator block and subsampling of the images
  • Evaluates on Middlebury database
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Monocular road mosaicing for urban environments [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger
IV 2009
Geiger2009IV

  • Marking-based lane recognition require unobstructed view onto the road which usually is not possible due to traffic
  • Multi-stage registration procedure for road mosaicing in dynamic environments
  • Approximating the road surface by a plane allows to use homographies for the mapping from one image to another
  • Picking a subset as keyframes to reduce error accumulation and save computational power
  • Road segmentation using optical flow on Harris corners
  • Combine road images using multi-band blending to remove artificial edges
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History of Autonomous DrivingAutonomous Driving Competitions
Team AnnieWAY's entry to the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2011 [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Martin Lauer and Frank Moosmann and Benjamin Ranft and Holger Rapp and Christoph Stiller and Julius Ziegler
TITS 2012
Geiger2012TITS

  • Presents the concepts and methods developed for the autonomous vehicle AnnieWAY, winning entry to the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge of 2011
  • Goal of cooperative driving is to improve traffic homogeneity using vehicle-to-vehicle communication to provide the vehicle with information about the current traffic situation
  • Contributions:
    • Describes algorithms used for sensor fusion, vehicle-to-vehicle communication and cooperative control
    • Analyzes the performance of the proposed methods and compare them to those of competing teams
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Scene Understanding
3D Traffic Scene Understanding from Movable Platforms [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Martin Lauer and Christian Wojek and Christoph Stiller and Raquel Urtasun
PAMI 2014
Geiger2014PAMI

  • Presents a probabilistic generative model for multi-object traffic scene understanding from movable platforms
  • Reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the location and orientation of objects in the scene
  • Contributions:
    • Estimates the layout of urban intersections based on onboard stereo imagery alone
    • Does not rely on strong prior knowledge such as intersection maps
    • Infers all information from different types of visual features that describe the static environment of the crossroads & the motions of objects in the scene
  • Evaluates on dataset of 113 video sequences of real traffic
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
Are we ready for Autonomous Driving? The KITTI Vision Benchmark Suite [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Philip Lenz and Raquel Urtasun
CVPR 2012
Geiger2012CVPR

  • Autonomous driving platform equipped with video cameras, Velodyne scanner & GPS
  • Goal: provide novel benchmarks for several tasks
    • Stereo & optical flow: 389 image pairs
    • Stereo visual odometry: sequences of 39.2 km total length
    • 2D & 3D object detection: vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists (>200k annotations)
  • Online evaluation server (held-out test ground truth)
  • Conclusions: novel challenges and ranking compared to lab conditions (eg, Middlebury)
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Cameras Models & CalibrationCalibration
Automatic Calibration of Range and Camera Sensors using a single Shot [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Frank Moosmann and Oemer Car and Bernhard Schuster
ICRA 2012
Geiger2012ICRA

  • Set up of calibrated systems heavily delay robotic research
  • Toolbox with web interface for fully automatic camera-to-camera and camera-to-range calibration using plane checkerboard patterns
  • Recovers intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters as well as transformation between cameras and range sensors within one minute
  • Checkerboard corner detector significantly outperforms state-of-the-art
  • Validation using a variety of sensors such as cameras, Kinect, and Velodyne laser scanner
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ReconstructionStereo
Efficient Large-Scale Stereo Matching [pdf] [slide]
Geiger, Andreas and Roser, Martin and Urtasun, Raquel
ACCV 2010
Geiger2010ACCV

  • Fast stereo matching for high-resolution images
  • Efficient, parallel algorithm in a reduced search space
  • Building a prior on the disparities
    • Robustly matched points used to form a triangulation (support points)
    • Reducing the matching ambiguities of the remaining points
    • Piecewise linear: robust to poorly-textured and slanted surfaces
  • Automatic detection of disparity range
  • Significantly lower matching entropy compared to using a uniform prior
  • 1 sec for a 1 Megapixel image pair on a single CPU
  • State-of-the-art with significant speed-ups on large-scale Middlebury benchmark
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Scene UnderstandingIndoor 3D Scene Understanding
Joint 3D Object and Layout Inference from a single RGB-D Image [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Chaohui Wang
GCPR 2015
Geiger2015GCPR

  • Inferring 3D objects and the layout of indoor scenes from a single RGB-D image captured with a Kinect camera
  • A high-order graphical model to jointly reason about the layout, objects and superpixels in the image
  • Sampling accurate 3D CAD proposals directly from the unary distribution
  • Explicitly modelling visibility and occlusion constraints
  • Improvements with respect to two custom baselines and state-of-the-art
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
StereoScan: Dense 3D Reconstruction in Real-time [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Julius Ziegler and Christoph Stiller
IV 2011
Geiger2011IV

  • Real-time 3D reconstruction from high-resolution stereo sequences using visual odometry
  • Sparse feature matching using blob, corner detector and descriptors
  • Egomotion estimation by minimizing the reprojection error and refining with Kalman filter
  • Dense 3D reconstruction by projecting image points into 3D and associating the projected points
  • Visual odometry runs at 25fps and 3D reconstruction at 3-4fps
  • Evaluation on the Karlsruhe dataset to GPS+IMU data and a freely available visual odometry library
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
StereoScan: Dense 3D Reconstruction in Real-time [pdf] [slide]
Andreas Geiger and Julius Ziegler and Christoph Stiller
IV 2011
Geiger2011IV

  • Real-time 3D reconstruction from high-resolution stereo sequences using visual odometry
  • Sparse feature matching using blob, corner detector and descriptors
  • Egomotion estimation by minimizing the reprojection error and refining with Kalman filter
  • Dense 3D reconstruction by projecting image points into 3D and associating the projected points
  • Visual odometry runs at 25fps and 3D reconstruction at 3-4fps
  • Evaluation on the Karlsruhe dataset to GPS+IMU data and a freely available visual odometry library
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Object DetectionPerson Detection
Survey on Pedestrian Detection for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems [pdf] [slide]
David Geronimo and Antonio M. Lopez and Angel D. Sappa and Thorsten Graf
PAMI 2010
Geronimo2010PAMI

  • In this paper, the focus is on a particular type of ADAS, pedestrian protection systems (PPSs).
  • The objective of a PPS is to detect the presence of both stationary and moving people in a specific area of interest around the moving host vehicle in order to warn the driver
  • Presents a general module-based architecture that simplifies the comparison of specific detection tasks
  • Provides a comprehensive up- to-date review of state-of-the-art sensors and benchmarking
  • Reviews different approaches according to the specific tasks defined in the aforementioned architecture
  • Major progress has been made in pedestrian classification, mainly due to synergy with generic object detection and applications such as face detection and surveillance
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Cameras Models & CalibrationOmnidirectional Cameras
A unifying theory for central panoramic systems and practical implications [pdf] [slide]
Christopher Geyer and Kostas Daniilidis
ECCV 2000
Geyer2000ECCV

  • Provides a unifying theory for all central catadioptric systems, that means for all catadioptric systems with a unique effective viewpoint
  • Shows that all of them are isomorphic to projective mappings from the sphere to a plane with a projection center on the perpendicular to the plane
  • This unification is novel & has significant impact on the 3D interpretation of images
  • Presents new invariances inherent in parabolic projections and a unifying calibration scheme from one view
  • Describes the advantages of catadioptric systems & explain why images arising in central catadioptric systems contain more information than images from conventional cameras
  • One example is that intrinsic calibration from a single view is possible for parabolic catadioptric systems given only three lines
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
Laplacian Pyramid Reconstruction and Refinement for Semantic Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Golnaz Ghiasi and Charless C. Fowlkes
ECCV 2016
Ghiasi2016ECCV

  • A multi-resolution reconstruction (from low to full resolution) architecture for semantic segmentation
  • Significant sub-pixel localization information in high-dimensional features
    • Sub-pixel up-sampling using a class-specific reconstruction basis
    • Substantially improves over common up-sampling schemes
  • Laplacian pyramid using skip connections from higher resolution feature maps
  • Reducing the effect of shallow, high-resolution layers by using them only to correct residual errors in the low-resolution prediction (like ResNets)
  • Multiplicative gating to avoid integrating noisy high-resolution outputs
  • State-of-the-art results on the PASCAL VOC and Cityscapes benchmarks
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Tracking
A Bayesian Framework for Multi-cue 3D Object Tracking [pdf] [slide]
J. Giebel and D.M. Gavrila and C. Schnorr
ECCV 2004
Giebel2004ECCV

  • Multi-cue 3D deformable object tracking from a moving vehicle
  • Spatio-temporal shape representation by a set of distinct linear subspace models Dynamic Point Distribution Models (DPDMs)
    • Continuous and discontinuous appearance changes
    • Learned fully automatically from training data
  • Texture information by means of intensity histograms , compared using the Bhattacharyya coefficient
  • Direct 3D measurement by a stereo system
  • State propagation by a particle filter combining shape, texture and depth in its observation density function
  • Measurements from an independent object detection by means of importance sampling
  • Evaluated in urban, rural, and synthetic environments
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Integrating metric and semantic maps for vision-only automated parking [pdf] [slide]
Hugo Grimmett and Mathias Burki and Lina Mara Paz and Pedro Pinies and Paul Timothy Furgale and Ingmar Posner and Paul Newman
ICRA 2015
Grimmett2015ICRA

  • Creating metric maps and semantic maps
  • Missing in the literature: how to update the semantic layer as the metric map evolves
  • Unsupervised evolution of both maps as the environment is revisited by the robot
  • Distinguishing between static and dynamic maps
  • Using vision-only sensors and reduced human labelling of semantic maps in case of safety-critical situations
  • Automatically generating road network graphs
  • Evaluated on two different car parks with a fully automated car, performing repeated automated parking manoeuvres (V-Charge project)
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Deep Discrete Flow [pdf] [slide]
Fatma Gney and Andreas Geiger
ACCV 2016
Guney2016ACCV

  • Learning features for optical flow by training a CNN for feature matching on image patches
  • Large receptive field size via dilated convolutions
  • A context network (dilated convolutions) trained on the output of a local network (regular convolutions)
  • Fast exact matching on GPU
  • Discrete flow framework
  • Regular BP with 300 proposals
  • Evaluated on Sintel and KITTI benchmarks
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ReconstructionStereo
Displets: Resolving Stereo Ambiguities using Object Knowledge [pdf] [slide]
Fatma Gney and Andreas Geiger
CVPR 2015
Guney2015CVPR

  • Using object-category specific disparity proposals (displets) to compensate for the weak data term on the reflecting and textureless surfaces
  • Displets as non-local regularizer for the challenging object class 'car' in a superpixel based CRF framework
  • Sampling displets using inverse graphics techniques based on a sparse disparity estimate and a semantic segmentation of the image
  • Representative set of 3D CAD models of cars from Google Warehouse (8 models)
  • Mesh simplification of 3D CAD models for preserving the hull of the object
  • The best performing method on KITTI stereo benchmark, but slow
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Cameras Models & CalibrationOmnidirectional Cameras
Real-Time Direct Dense Matching on Fisheye Images Using Plane-Sweeping [pdf] [slide]
Christian Hane and Lionel Heng and Gim Hee Lee and Alexey Sizov and Marc Pollefeys
THREEDV 2014
Haene2014THREEDV

  • An adaptation of camera projection models for fisheye cameras into the plane-sweeping stereo matching algorithm
  • Depth maps computed directly from the fisheye images to cover a larger part of the scene with fewer images
  • Plane-sweeping approach over rectification:
    • Suitable for more than two images
    • Well-suited to GPUs fro real-time performance
  • Requirement: Efficient projection and unprojection
  • Two different camera models: the unified projection and the field-of-view (FOV)
  • Unified projection model also works for other non-pinhole cameras such as omnidirectional and catadioptric cameras.
  • Simple, real-time approach for full, good quality and high resolution depth maps
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Obstacle detection for self-driving cars using only monocular cameras and wheel odometry [pdf] [slide]
Christian Hane and Torsten Sattler and Marc Pollefeys
IROS 2015
Haene2015IROS

  • Extracting static obstacles from depth maps computed from monocular fisheye cameras parked cars and signposts, the amount of free space, distance between obstacles, the size of an empty parking spot
  • Motivation: Affordable, reliable, accurate, and real-time detection of obstacles
  • Two approaches: Active methods using sensors such as laser scanners, time-of-flight, structured light or ultrasound and passive methods using camera images
  • No need for accurate visual inertial odometry estimation, only available wheel odometry
  • Steps:
    • Depth estimation for each camera using multi-view stereo matching
    • Obstacle detection in 2D
    • Fusing the obstacle detections over several camera frames to handle uncertainty
  • Accurate enough for navigation purposes of self-driving cars
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
Fast semantic segmentation of 3d point clouds with strongly varying density [pdf] [slide]
Timo Hackel and Jan D. Wegner and Konrad Schindler
APRS 2016
Hackel2016APRS

  • Semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds
  • Unstructured and inhomogeneous point clouds (LiDAR, photogammetric reconstruction)
  • Features from neighbourhood relations
    • A multi-scale pyramid with decreasing point density
    • A separate search structure per scale level
  • Random Forest classifier to predict class-conditional probabilities
  • Point clouds with many millions of points in a matter of minutes (< 4 minutes per 10 million points)
  • Evaluated on
    • benchmark data from a mobile mapping platform (Paris-Rue-Cassette and Paris-Rue-Madame)
    • a variety of large, terrestrial laser scans with greatly varying point density
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Class Specific 3D Object Shape Priors Using Surface Normals [pdf] [slide]
Haene, Christian and Savinov, Nikolay and Pollefeys, Marc
CVPR 2014
Haene2014CVPR

  • Dense 3D reconstruction of real world objects
  • General smoothness priors such as surface area regularization can lead to defects
  • Exploit the object class specific local surface orientation to solve this problem
  • Object class specific shape prior in form of spatially varying anisotropic smoothness term
  • Discrete Wulff shapes allow general enough parametrization for anisotropic smoothness
  • Parameters are extracted from training data
  • Directly fits into volumetric multi-label reconstruction approaches
  • Allows a segmentation between the object and its supporting grounds
  • Evaluated on synthetic data and real world sequences
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Joint 3D Scene Reconstruction and Class Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Christian Haene and Christopher Zach and Andrea Cohen and Roland Angst and Marc Pollefeys
CVPR 2013
Haene2013CVPR

  • Proposes a rigorous mathematical framework to formulate and solve a joint segmentation and dense reconstruction problem
  • Contributions:
    • Demonstrates that joint image segmentation and dense 3D reconstruction is beneficial for both tasks
    • Introduces a rigorous mathematical framework to formulate and solve this joint optimization task.
    • Extends volumetric scene reconstruction methods to a multi-label volumetric segmentation framework
  • Evaluates on castle P-30 dataset
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ReconstructionStereo
A Patch Prior for Dense 3D Reconstruction in Man-Made Environments [pdf] [slide]
Christian Haene and Christopher Zach and Bernhard Zeisl and Marc Pollefeys
THREEDIMPVT 2012
Haene2012THREEDIMPVT

  • Dense 3D reconstructions suffer from weak and ambiguous observations in man-made environments that can be solved with strong, domain-specific priors
  • Powerful prior directly modeling the expected local surface-structure without the need for higher-order MRFs
  • Using a small patch dictionary as by patch-based representations used in image processing
  • Energy can be optimized using an efficient first-order primal dual algorithm
  • The patch dictionary and priors on dictionary coefficients are known
  • Demonstrate the prior for dense reconstruction of 3D models using stereo and fusion of multiple depth maps on synthetic data and real data
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Instance Segmentation
Shape-aware Instance Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Zeeshan Hayder and Xuming He and Mathieu Salzmann
ARXIV 2016
Hayder2016ARXIV

  • Instance-level semantic segmentation
  • Methods typically propose candidate objects and directly predict a binary mask
  • Cannot recover from errors in candidate generation like too small or shifted boxes
  • Novel object segment representation based on the distance transform of the object masks
  • Object mask network with a new residual-deconvolution architecture infers such representation and decodes it into the final binary mask
  • Integration into a Multitask Network Cascade framework and training end-to-end of the shape-aware instance segmentation network
  • Outperforms state-of-the-art in object proposal generation and instance segmentation in PASCAL VOC 2012 and CityScapes
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Cameras Models & CalibrationCalibration
Leveraging Image-based Localization for Infrastructure-based Calibration of a Multi-camera Rig [pdf] [slide]
Lionel Heng and Paul Timothy Furgale and Marc Pollefeys
JFR 2015
Heng2015JFR

  • Efficient, robust, completely unsupervised infrastructure-based calibration method for calibration of a multi-camera rig
    • Efficient, near real-time
    • No modification of the infrastructure (or calibration area)
    • By using natural features instead of known fiducial markings
    • Completely unsupervised
    • No initial guesses for the extrinsic parameters
    • Without assuming overlapping fields of view
  • Using a map of a chosen calibration area via SLAM-based self-calibration (one-time run)
  • Leveraging image-based localization
  • Significantly improved version of Heng2013IROS Differences to :
    • Robust 6D pose graph optimization
    • Improved feature matching
    • More improvements related to joint optimization
  • Extensive experiments to quantify the accuracy and repeatability of the extrinsics
  • Evaluation of the accuracy of the map
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Cameras Models & CalibrationCalibration
CamOdoCal: Automatic intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a rig with multiple generic cameras and odometry [pdf] [slide]
Lionel Heng and Bo Li and Marc Pollefeys
IROS 2013
Heng2013IROS

  • A full automatic pipeline for both intrinsic calibration for a generic camera and extrinsic calibration for a rig with multiple generic cameras and odometry
    • Without the need for GPS/INS and the Vicon motion capture system
  • Intrinsic calibration for each generic camera using a chessboard
  • Extrinsic calibration to find all camera-odometry transforms
    • Monocular VO for each camera using five-point algorithm and linear triangulation
    • Robust initial estimate of camera-odometry transform robust to poor-feature areas
    • 3D point triangulation
    • Finding local inter-camera feature point correspondences for consistency
    • Loop closure detection using a vocabulary tree
    • Full bundle adjustment which optimizes all intrinsics, extrinsics, odometry poses, and 3D scene points
  • Globally-consistent sparse map of landmarks which can be used for visual localization
  • Highly accurate, automated, adaptable calibration for arbitrary, large-scale environments
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ReconstructionStereo
Stereo Processing by Semiglobal Matching and Mutual Information [pdf] [slide]
Hirschmller, Heiko
PAMI 2008
Hirschmueller2008PAMI

  • A pixel-wise, Mutual Information (MI)-based matching cost
  • Cost aggregation as approximation of a global, 2D smoothness constraint by combining many 1D constraints
    • Two terms by using a lower penalty for small changes
  • Disparity computation as WTA and by disparity refinements as consistency checking and sub-pixel interpolation
    • Propagating valid disparities along paths from eight directions
  • Multi-baseline matching by fusion of disparities
  • Further disparity refinements: peak filtering, intensity consistent disparity selection, and gap interpolation
  • Matching almost arbitrarily large images
  • Fusion of several disparity images using orthographic projection
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ReconstructionStereo
Evaluation of Cost Functions for Stereo Matching [pdf] [slide]
H. Hirschmller and D. Scharstein
CVPR 2007
Hirschmueller2007CVPR

  • Evaluation of the insensitivity of different matching costs with respect to radiometric variations for stereo correspondence methods
  • Pixel-based and window-based variants are considered
  • Sampling-insensitive absolute differences, three filter-based costs, hierarchical mutual information and normalized cross-correlation
  • Measure the performance in the presence of global intensity changes, local intensity changes, and noise
  • Different costs are evaluated with local, semi-global and global stereo methods
  • Using Middlebury stereo dataset with ground-truth disparities and six new datasets taken under controlled changes of exposure and lighting
  • Filter-based costs performed best with local radiometric variations but have blurry edges whereas HMI has sharp edges
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Scene Understanding
Recovering Surface Layout from an Image [pdf] [slide]
Hoiem, Derek and Efros, Alexei A. and Hebert, Martial
IJCV 2007
Hoiem2007IJCV

  • Constructing the surface layout via a labelling of the image into geometric classes
    • main classes (support, vertical, sky) and subclasses of vertical (left, center, right, porous, solid)
  • Appearance-based models for each class through multiple segmentations
    • A wide variety of image cues including position, color, texture, and perspective
    • Multiple segmentations for the spatial support, useful especially for subclasses
  • Applicable to a wide variety of outdoor scenes and generalizable to indoor scenes
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of 3D Data
Point Cloud Labeling using 3D Convolutional Neural Network [pdf] [slide]
Jing Huang and Suya You
ICPR 2016
Huang2016ICPR

  • Labelling 3D point clouds using a 3D CNN
  • Motivation:
    • Projecting 3D to 2D: loss of important 3D structural information
    • No segmentation step or hand-crafted features
  • An end-to-end segmentation method based on voxelized data
    • Voxelization to generate occupancy voxel grids centered at a set of keypoints
    • 3D CNN: two 3D convolutional layers, two 3D max-pooling layers, a fully connected layer and a logistic regression layer
  • Experiments on a large Lidar point cloud dataset of the urban area of Ottawa with 7 categories
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
FlowNet 2.0: Evolution of Optical Flow Estimation with Deep Networks [pdf] [slide]
Eddy Ilg and Nikolaus Mayer and Tonmoy Saikia and Margret Keuper and Alexey Dosovitskiy and Thomas Brox
ARXIV 2016
Ilg2016ARXIV

  • Improving end-to-end optical flow estimation with a CNN
  • A learning schedule consisting of multiple datasets
    • Training on Chairs first and fine-tuning on Things3D
    • FlowNetC outperforms FlowNetS
  • A stacked architecture by warping of the second image with intermediate optical flow
  • Different variants of the network (trade-off between accuracy and speed)
  • A sub-network specializing on small motions trained on a special dataset
  • Adding another network that learns to fuse the stacked network with the small displacement network
  • Better than FlowNet and on par with state-of-the-art on Sintel and KITTI
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Facades
Efficient Facade Segmentation Using Auto-context [pdf] [slide]
Varun Jampani and Raghudeep Gadde and Peter V. Gehler
WACV 2015
Jampani2015WACV

  • Problem: Segmentation for 2D images and 3D point clouds of building facades
  • Existing methods make use of domain-specific knowledge as strong prior information
  • Contributions:
    • Inroduces generic segmentation method that ignores domain knowledge
    • Shows good segmentation results by pixel classifications methods that use basic image features in conjunction with auto-context features
    • Proposes system of a sequence of boosted decision tree classifiers stacked using auto-context features
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Scene UnderstandingIndoor 3D Scene Understanding
3D-Based Reasoning with Blocks, Support, and Stability [pdf] [slide]
Jia, Zhaoyin and Gallagher, Andrew and Saxena, Ashutosh and Chen, Tsuhan
CVPR 2013
Jia2013CVPR

  • 3D volumetric reasoning from RGB-D images using 3D block units
  • Fit image segments with 3D blocks
  • Iteratively evaluate the scene based on block interaction properties:newline Intersections, supportive relations and the stability of the scene given the boxes
  • Joint optimization over segmentations, block fitting, supporting relations and object stability
  • Evaluation on several RGB-D datasets 1 including controlled and real indoor scenarios


1. N. Silberman, D. Hoiem, P. Kohli, and R. Fergus. Indoor segmentation and support inference from RGBD images. In ECCV, 2012.
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
iSAM2: Incremental Smoothing and Mapping Using the Bayes Tree [pdf] [slide]
Michael Kaess and Hordur Johannsson and Richard Roberts and Viorela Ila and John J. Leonard and Frank Dellaert
IJRR 2012
Kaess2012IJRR

  • Presents a novel data structure, the Bayes tree, that provides an algorithmic foundation enabling a better understanding of existing graphical model inference algorithms and their connection to sparse matrix factorization methods
  • Contributions:
    • Bayes tree encodes a factored probability density, but unlike the clique tree it is directed and maps more naturally to the information matrix of the simultaneous localization and mapping problem
    • Shows how the fairly abstract updates to a matrix factorization translate to a simple editing of the Bayes tree and its conditional densities
    • Applies the Bayes tree to obtain a novel algorithm for sparse nonlinear incremental optimization, which achieves improvements in efficiency through incremental variable re-ordering & relinearization
  • Evaluates on a range of real and simulated datasets like Manhattan, Killian Court and City20000
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
iSAM: Incremental Smoothing and Mapping [pdf] [slide]
Michael Kaess and Ananth Ranganathan and Frank Dellaert
TR 2008
Kaess2008TR

  • Simultaneous localization and mapping
  • Requirements for SLAM: incremental, real-time, applicable to large-scale environments, and online data association
  • An incremental smoothing and mapping approach based on fast incremental matrix factorization
  • Efficient and exact solution by updating a QR factorization of the naturally sparse smoothing information matrix
  • Recalculating only the matrix entries that actually change
  • Periodic variable reordering to avoid unnecessary fill-in (trajectories with many loops)
  • Estimation of relevant uncertainties for online data association
  • Evaluation on various simulated and real-world datasets for both landmark and pose-only settings
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Alignment of 3D point clouds to overhead images [pdf] [slide]
R. S. Kaminsky and Noah Snavely and Steven M. Seitz and Richard Szeliski
CVPRWORK 2009
Kaminsky2009CVPRWORK

  • Addresses the problem of automatically aligning structure-from-motion reconstructions to overhead images, such as satellite images, maps and floor plans, generated from an orthographic camera
  • Contributions:
    • Computes the optimal alignment using an objective function that matches 3D points to image edges
    • Imposes free space constraints based on the visibility of points in each camera
  • Evaluates on several outdoor and indoor scenes using both satellite and floor plan images
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
PoseNet: A Convolutional Network for Real-Time 6-DOF Camera Relocalization [pdf] [slide]
Alex Kendall and Matthew Grimes and Roberto Cipolla
ICCV 2015
Kendall2015ICCV

  • Robust and real-time monocular relocalization system
  • 23 layer deep convnet to regress the 6-DOF camera pose from a RGB image in an end-to-end manner
  • Transfer learning from large scale classification data (training a pose regressor, pre-trained as a classifier on immense recognition datasets)
  • Using SfM to automatically generate camera poses from a video of the scene
  • Mapping feature vectors to pose which generalizes to unseen scenes with a few additional training samples
  • Evaluated on both indoors (7 Scenes dataset) and outdoors in real time, (5ms per frame)
  • An outdoor urban localization dataset with 5 scenes: Cambridge Landmarks
  • Robust to difficult lighting, motion blur and different camera intrinsics where point based SIFT registration fails
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Instance Segmentation
InstanceCut: from Edges to Instances with MultiCut [pdf] [slide]
Alexander Kirillov and Evgeny Levinkov and Bjoern Andres and Bogdan Savchynskyy and Carsten Rother
ARXIV 2016
Kirillov2016ARXIV

  • Instance-aware semantic segmentation
  • Challenges:
    • Meaningless labels (car number 5)
    • Varying number of objects
    • Set of pixels vs. bounding boxes
    • Need for a more refined labelling of the training data (rare classes)
  • An instance-agnostic semantic segmentation using CNNs
  • All instance-boundaries using a new instance-aware edge detection model
  • Combined into a novel MultiCut formulation
  • Evaluated on CityScapes: particularly well for rare object classes
  • Not handled: instances that are formed by disconnected regions in the image
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Visual Odometry based on Stereo Image Sequences with RANSAC-based Outlier Rejection Scheme [pdf] [slide]
Bernd Kitt and Andreas Geiger and Henning Lategahn
IV 2010
Kitt2010IV

  • Well distributed corner-like feature matches due to bucketing
  • Using trifocal geometry the egomotion is estimated
  • Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter yields robust frame-to-frame motion estimation
  • Outlier are rejected with RANSAC-based approach
  • Outperforms other filtering techniques in accuracy and run time
  • Evaluated on simulated and real world data with INS trajectories
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
The HCI Benchmark Suite: Stereo and Flow Ground Truth With Uncertainties for Urban Autonomous Driving [pdf] [slide]
Kondermann, Daniel and Nair, Rahul and Honauer, Katrin and Krispin, Karsten and Andrulis, Jonas and Brock, Alexander and Gussefeld, Burkhard and Rahimimoghaddam, Mohsen and Hofmann, Sabine and Brenner, Claus and Jahne, Bernd
CVPRWORK 2016
Kondermann2016CVPRWORK

  • Stereo and optical flow dataset to complement existing benchmarks
  • Representative for urban autonomous driving, including realistic systematically varied radiometric and geometric challenges
  • Evaluation of the ground truth accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations
  • Interquartile ranges are used as uncertainty measure
  • Binary masks for dynamically moving regions are supplied with estimated stereo and flow
  • Initial benchmark consists of 55 manually selected sequences between 19 and 100 frames
  • Interactive tools for database search, visualization, comparison and benchmarking
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Fast Optical Flow using Dense Inverse Search [pdf] [slide]
Till Kroeger and Radu Timofte and Dengxin Dai and Luc Van Gool
ARXIV 2016
Kroeger2016ARXIV

  • Very low time complexity for dense optical flow
  • Inverse search for a uniform grid of patch correspondences
    • Inverse Lukas-Kanade algorithm proposed before
  • Dense displacement field creation through patch aggregation along multiple scales
    • Coarse-to-fine scheme
    • Densification as weighted averaging to displacement estimates
  • Variational refinement
  • 300Hz up to 600Hz on a single CPU core (human-level temporal resolution)
  • Evaluated on Sintel and KITTI benchmarks
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Semantic SegmentationRoad Segmentation
Spatial Ray Features for Real-Time Ego-Lane Extraction [pdf] [slide]
Kuehnl, T. and Kummert, F. and Fritsch, J.
IV 2012
Kuehnl2012IV

  • Road classification in in unconstrained environments
  • Extending local appearance-based road classification with a spatial feature generation and classification
  • Local properties from base classifiers on patches from monocular camera images
  • Output of classifiers represented in a metric confidence map
  • Spatial ray features (SPRAY) from these confidence maps
  • Final road-terrain classification based on local visual properties and their spatial layout
  • No an explicit lane model
  • In real-time with approximately 25 Hz on a GPU
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Scene Understanding
What's going on?: Discovering Spatio-Temporal Dependencies in Dynamic Scenes [pdf] [slide]
Kuettel, Daniel and Breitenstein, Michael D. and Gool, Luc Van and Ferrari, Vittorio
CVPR 2010
Kuettel2010CVPR

  • Learning spatio-temporal dependencies of moving agents in complex dynamic scenes What are the typical actions in the scene? How do they relate to each other? What are the rules governing the scene?
  • Motivation: modelling
    • correlated behaviours of multiple agents rather than independent agents
    • spatial and temporal dependencies jointly
  • Local temporal rules: learning sequences of activities using Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP)
  • Global temporal rules: jointly learning co-occurring activities and their time dependencies using an arbitrary number of HMMs in HDP
  • Datasets: two videos of three hours in Zurich and two shorter videos of London
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Joint Semantic Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Video [pdf] [slide]
Kundu, Abhijit and Li, Yin and Dellaert, Frank and Li, Fuxin and Rehg, JamesM.
ECCV 2014
Kundu2014ECCV

  • Presents a method for joint inference of both semantic segmentation and 3D reconstruction
  • Contributions:
    • Introduces a novel higher order CRF model for joint inference of 3D structure and semantics in a 3D volumetric model
    • The framework does not require dense depth measurements and utilizes semantic cues and 3D priors to enhance both depth estimation and scene parsing
    • Presents a data-driven category-specific process for dynamically instantiating potentials in the CRF
  • Evaluates on monocular sequences such as CamVid and Leuven
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation with Multiple Frames
Feature Space Optimization for Semantic Video Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Abhijit Kundu and Vibhav Vineet and Vladlen Koltun
CVPR 2016
Kundu2016CVPR

  • long-range spatio-temporal regularization in semantic video segmentation
  • Temporal regularization is challenging because of camera and scene motion
  • Optimize the position of pixels in a Euclidean feature space to minimize the distances between corresponding points
  • Structured prediction is performed by a dense CRF operating on the optimized features
  • Evaluation on CamVid and Cityscapes dataset and achieving state-of-the-art accuracy for semantic video segmentation
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ReconstructionStereo
Fast and Accurate Large-scale Stereo Reconstruction using Variational Methods [pdf] [slide]
Kuschk, Georg and Cremers, Daniel
ICCVWORK 2013
Kuschk2013ICCVWORK

  • Presents a fast algorithm for high-accuracy large-scale outdoor dense stereo reconstruction of man- made environments
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes a structure-adaptive second-order Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization which facilitates the emergence of planar structures by enhancing the discontinuities along building facades
    • Uses cost functions as data term which are robust to illumination changes arising in real world scenarios
    • Instead of solving the optimization problem by a coarse-to-fine approach, proposes a quadratic relaxation which is solved by an augmented Lagrangian method
    • This technique allows for capturing large displacements and fine structures simultaneously
    • Experiments show that the proposed augmented Lagrangian formulation leads to a speedup by about a factor of 2
  • Evaluates on Middlebury, KITTI stereo datasets
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Semantic SegmentationRoad Segmentation
Map-Supervised Road Detection [pdf] [slide]
Ankit Laddha and Mehmet Kemal Kocamaz and Luis E. Navarro-Serment and Martial Hebert
IV 2016
AnkitLaddha2016IV

  • Proposes an approach to detect drivable road area in monocular images
  • Self-supervised approach which doesnt require any human road annotations on images to train the road detection algorithm
  • First, they automatically generate training drivable road area annotations for images using noisy OpenStreetMap data, vehicle pose estimation sensors (GPS and IMU) on the vehicle, and camera parameters
  • Next, they train a Convolutional Neural Network using these noisy labels for road detection
  • Outperforms all the methods which do not require human effort for image labeling
  • Evaluates on KITTI dataset
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
Structural Approach for Building Reconstruction from a Single DSM [pdf] [slide]
Florent Lafarge and Xavier Descombes and Josiane Zerubia and Marc Pierrot Deseilligny
PAMI 2010
Lafarge2010PAMI

  • 3D reconstruction of complex buildings and dense urban areas from a single Digital Surface Model (DSM)
  • Buildings as an assemblage of simple urban structures extracted from a library of 3D parametric blocks (like Lego pieces)
  • Steps:
    • Extraction of 2D-supports of the urban structures (interactively or automatically)
    • 3D-blocks are positioned on the 2D-supports using a Gibbs model
    • MCMC sampler to find the optimal configuration of 3D-blocks associated with original proposition kernels
  • Validated in a wide resolution interval such as 0.7 m satellite and 0.1 m aerial DSMs
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
A Hybrid Multiview Stereo Algorithm for Modeling Urban Scenes. [pdf] [slide]
Lafarge, Florent and Keriven, Renaud and Bredif, Mathieu and Vu, Hoang-Hiep
PAMI 2013
Lafarge2013PAMI

  • Presents an original multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithm which allows the 3D-modeling of urban scenes as a combination of meshes and geometric primitives
  • Contributions:
    • Hybrid modeling by generating meshes where primitives are then inserted or by detecting primitives and then meshing the unfitted parts of the scene
    • The lack of information contained in the images is compensated by the introduction of urban knowledge in the stochastic model
    • Efficient global optimization by performing the sampling of both 3D-primitives and meshes by a Jump-Diffusion based algorithm
  • Evaluates on Entry-P10, Herz-Jesu-P25 and Church datasets
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
Creating Large-Scale City Models from 3D-Point Clouds: A Robust Approach with Hybrid Representation [pdf] [slide]
Florent Lafarge and Clement Mallet
IJCV 2012
Lafarge2012IJCV

  • Simultaneous 3D reconstruction of buildings, trees and topologically complex ground from point clouds
  • Classification of points into building, vegetation, ground or clutter
  • Geometric 3D primitives used for reconstruction of different classes
  • Arrangement scheme for parametric 3D-shapes allowing to impose structural constraints
  • Non-convex energy minimization with a parallelization scheme to reduce computational time
  • Tested on the Toronto Lidar scan samples and large DSM-based point clouds provided by the French Mapping Agency
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Visual SLAM for Autonomous Ground Vehicles [pdf] [slide]
Henning Lategahn and Andreas Geiger and Bernd Kitt
ICRA 2011
Lategahn2011ICRA

  • Propose a dense stereo V-SLAM algorithm that estimates a dense 3D map representation which is more accurate than raw stereo measurements
  • Runs a sparse V- SLAM system, take the resulting pose estimates to compute a locally dense representation from dense stereo correspondences
  • Expresses this dense representation in local coordinate systems which are tracked as part of the SLAM estimate
  • The sparse part of the SLAM system uses sub mapping techniques to achieve constant runtime complexity most of the time
  • Evaluates on outdoor experiments of a car like robot.
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TrackingState-of-the-Art on KITTI
Multi-class Multi-object Tracking Using Changing Point Detection [pdf] [slide]
Byungjae Lee and Enkhbayar Erdenee and SongGuo Jin and Mi Young Nam and Young Giu Jung and Phill-Kyu Rhee
ECCV 2016
Lee2016ECCV

  • Presents a robust multi-class multi-object tracking (MCMOT) formulated by a Bayesian filtering framework
  • Contributions:
    • Departing from the likelihood estimation only for limited type of objects, CNN based object detector is used to compute the likelihoods of multiple object classes.
    • Changing point detection is proposed for a tracking failure assessment by exploiting static observations as well as dynamic ones
  • Evaluates on video sequences from ImageNet VID and MOT benchmarks
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Motion Estimation for Self-Driving Cars with a Generalized Camera [pdf] [slide]
Gim Hee Lee and Friedrich Fraundorfer and Marc Pollefeys
CVPR 2013
Lee2013CVPR

  • Visual ego-motion estimation algorithm for self-driving car
  • Modeling multi-camera system as a generalized camera
  • Applying non-holonomic motion constraint of a car (Ackerman motion model)
  • Novel 2-point minimal solution for the generalized essential matrix
  • General case with at least one inter-camera correspondence and special case with only intra-camera correspondences
  • Efficient implementation within RANSAC for robust estimation
  • Comparison on a large real-world dataset with minimal overlapping field-of-views against GPS/INS ground truth
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Structureless pose-graph loop-closure with a multi-camera system on a self-driving car [pdf] [slide]
Gim Hee Lee and Friedrich Fraundorfer and Marc Pollefeys
IROS 2013
Lee2013IROS

  • Proposes a method to compute the pose-graph loop-closure constraints using multiple overlapping field-of-views cameras mounted on a self-driving car
  • Contributions:
    • Shows that the relative pose for the loop-closure constraint can be computed directly from the epipolar geometry of a multi-camera system
    • Avoids the additional time complexities from the reconstruction of 3D scene points
    • Provides greater flexibility in choosing a configuration for the multi-camera system to cover a wider field-of-view to avoid missing out any loop-closure opportunities
  • Evaluates on ParkingGarage01, ParkingGarage02 and Campu01 datasets
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Relative Pose Estimation for a Multi-camera System with Known Vertical Direction [pdf] [slide]
Gim Hee Lee and Marc Pollefeys and Friedrich Fraundorfer
CVPR 2014
Lee2014CVPR

  • Relative pose estimation of a multi-camera system with known vertical directions (known absolute roll and pitch angles)
  • Problems with the previous approaches:
    • The high number of correspondences needed
    • Identifying the correct solution from many solutions
    • Strict assumption on the planarity of ground
  • Minimal 4-point and linear 8-point algorithms within RANSAC
  • 4-point algorithm
    • Hidden variable resultant method
    • 8-degree univariate polynomial that gives up to 8 real solutions
  • Linear 8-point algorithm: an alternative solution for a degenerated case of SVD
  • Four fish-eye cameras fixed onto a car for ego-motion estimation
  • Evaluated on simulations and real-world datasets
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TrackingTracking with two cameras
Dynamic 3D Scene Analysis from a Moving Vehicle [pdf] [slide]
B. Leibe and N. Cornelis and K. Cornelis and L. Van Gool
CVPR 2007
Leibe2007CVPR

  • Presents an integrated system for dynamic scene analysis on a mobile platform
  • Contributions:
    • Presents a multi-view/multi-category object detection module that can detect objects
    • Shows how knowledge about the scene geometry can be used to improve recognition performance and to fuse the outputs of multiple detectors
    • Demonstrates how 2D detections can be integrated over time to arrive at accurate 3D localization of static objects
    • In order to deal with moving objects, proposes a tracking approach which formulates the tracking problem as space-time trajectory analysis followed by hypothesis selection.
  • Evaluates on 2 video sequence datasets introduced in the paper
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Object Detection2D Object Detection
Robust Object Detection with Interleaved Categorization and Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
B. Leibe and A. Leonardis and B. Schiele
IJCV 2008
Leibe2008IJCV

  • Proposes a method for learning the appearance and spatial structure of a visual object category in order to recognize novel objects of that category, localize them in cluttered real-world scenes, and automatically segment them from the background
  • Addresses object detection and segmentation not as separate entities, but as two closely collaborating processes
  • Presents a local-feature based approach that combines both capabilities into a common probabilistic framework
  • Initial recognition phase initializes the top-down segmentation process with a possible object location
  • segmentation permits the recognition stage to focus its effort on object pixels and discard misleading influences from the background
  • Uses segmentation in turn to improve recognition
  • Evaluates on UIUC Cars, CalTech Cars,TUD Motorbikes, VOC05 Motorbikes, Leeds Cows, TUD Pedestrians datasets
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Tracking
Coupled Detection and Tracking from Static Cameras and Moving Vehicles [pdf] [slide]
B. Leibe and K. Schindler and N. Cornelis and L. Van Gool
PAMI 2008
Leibe2008PAMI

  • Builds an integrated system for dynamic 3D scene analysis from a moving platform
  • Presents a novel approach for multi-object tracking integrating recognition, re-construction & tracking in a collaborative framework
  • Contributions:
    • Uses SfM to estimate scene geometry at each time step
    • Uses recognition to pick out objects of interest & separate them from the dynamically changing background
    • Uses the output of multiple single-view object detectors & integrates continuously reestimated scene geometry constraints
    • Uses tracking for temporal context to individual object detections
  • Evaluates on 2 video sequence datasets introduced in the paper
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TrackingState-of-the-Art on KITTI
FollowMe: Efficient Online Min-Cost Flow Tracking with Bounded Memory and Computation [pdf] [slide]
Philip Lenz and Andreas Geiger and Raquel Urtasun
ICCV 2015
Lenz2015ICCV

  • Limitations of min-cost flow formulations for tracking-by-detection (eg, Nevatia):
    • Require whole video as batch (no online computation)
    • Scale badly in memory and computation
  • Contributions:
    • Dynamic successive shortest path algorithm & extension to online processing
    • Approximate solver with bounded memory and computation
  • Evaluation on KITTI 2012 and PETS 2009 benchmarks
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
Keyframe-Based Visual-Inertial SLAM using Nonlinear Optimization [pdf] [slide]
Stefan Leutenegger and Paul Timothy Furgale and Vincent Rabaud and Margarita Chli and Kurt Konolige and Roland Siegwart
RSS 2013
Leutenegger2013RSS

  • A joint non-linear cost function to optimize an IMU error + landmark reprojection error in a fully probabilistic manner
  • Non-linear optimization approaches vs. filtering schemes
  • Tightly coupled vs. loosely coupled approaches for visual-inertial fusion
  • Marginalization of old states to maintain a bounded-sized optimization window for real-time performance
  • A fully probabilistic derivation of IMU error terms, including the respective information matrix
  • Building a pose graph without expressing global pose uncertainty
  • Both the hardware and the algorithms for accurate real-time SLAM, including robust keypoint matching and outlier rejection using inertial cues
  • Evaluated using a stereo-camera/IMU setup
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RepresentationsStixels
StixelNet: A Deep Convolutional Network for Obstacle Detection and Road Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Dan Levi and Noa Garnett and Ethan Fetaya
BMVC 2015
Levi2015BMVC

  • Obstacle avoidance for mobile robotics and autonomous driving
  • Detection of the closest obstacle in each direction from a driving vehicle using single color camera
  • Reduction of the problem in a column-wise regression problem solved with a deep CNN
    • Divide the image into columns
    • For each column the network estimates the pixel location of the bottom point of the closest obstacle
  • Loss function based on a semi-discrete representation of the obstacle position probability
  • Trained with ground truth generated from laser-scanner point cloud
  • Outperforms existing camera-based methods including ones using stereo on KITTI
  • Achieving among the best results for road segmentation on KITTI
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TrackingState-of-the-Art on KITTI
Joint Graph Decomposition and Node Labeling by Local Search [pdf] [slide]
Evgeny Levinkov and Siyu Tang and Eldar Insafutdinov and Bjoern Andres
ARXIV 2016
Levinkov2016ARXIV

  • States the minimum cost node labeling lifted multicut problem, NL-LMP, an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem whose feasible solutions define both a decomposition and a node labeling of a given graph.
  • Defines & implements two local search algorithms that converge monotonously to a local optimum, offering a feasible solution at any time.
  • Shows applications of these algorithms to the task of articulated human body pose estimation & to the task of multiple object tracking
  • Evaluates on MPII Multi-Person benchmark and MOT16 for multi-object tracking benchmark
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Object Detection3D Object Detection from 3D Point Clouds
Vehicle Detection from 3D Lidar Using Fully Convolutional Network [pdf] [slide]
Bo Li and Tianlei Zhang and Tian Xia
RSS 2016
Li2016RSS

  • Transferring fully convolutional network techniques to the vehicle detection task from the range data of Velodyne Lidar
  • Representing the data in a 2D point map
  • Using single 2D end-to-end fully convolutional network to predict the objectness confidence and bounding box simultaneously
  • Bounding box encoding allows to predict full 3D bounding boxes even with 2D CNN
  • State-of-the-art performance on KITTI dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Worldwide Pose Estimation using 3D Point Clouds [pdf] [slide]
Yunpeng Li and Noah Snavely and Dan Huttenlocher and Pascal Fua
ECCV 2012
Li2012ECCV

  • Addresses the problem of determining where a photo was taken by estimating a full 6-DOF-plus-intrincs camera pose with respect to a large geo-registered 3D point cloud
  • Contributions:
    • Observes that 3D points produced by SfM methods often have strong co-occurrence relationships
    • Finds such statistical co-occurrences by analyzing the large numbers of images in 3D SfM models
    • Presents a bidirectional matching scheme aimed at boosting the recovery of true correspondences between image features and model points
  • Evaluates on Landmarks, San Francisco, Quad datasets
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Scene UnderstandingIndoor 3D Scene Understanding
Holistic Scene Understanding for 3D Object Detection with RGB-D Cameras [pdf] [slide]
Dahua Lin and Sanja Fidler and Raquel Urtasun
ICCV 2013
Lin2013ICCV

  • Indoor scene understanding using RGBD data (category level 3D object detection)
  • By exploiting 2D segmentation, 3D geometry, and contextual relations
  • Modelling both appearance and depth rather than monocular setting
  • 3D cuboids as hypotheses in point clouds
  • Ranking according to objectness in appearance
  • Inference in a CRF to model the contextual relationships between objects, and scenes and objects
  • Improves upon state-of-the-art on NYU v2 dataset
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Efficient Piecewise Training of Deep Structured Models for Semantic [pdf] [slide]
Guosheng Lin and Chunhua Shen and Ian D. Reid and Anton van den Hengel
CVPR 2016
Lin2016CVPR

  • Semantic segmentation using contextual information
  • Patch-patch context: Piecewise training of CRFs with CNN-based unary and pairwise potentials (connecting every patch with surrounding, above/below relations)
  • Patch-background context: multi-scale image input, sliding pyramid pooling
  • Prediction: first coarse-level (CRF), and then refinement (Dense CRF)
  • New state-of-the-art on NYUDv2, PASCAL VOC 2012, PASCAL-Context, and SIFT-flow datasets
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Cross-View Image Geolocalization [pdf] [slide]
Tsung-Yi Lin and Serge J. Belongie and James Hays
CVPR 2013
Lin2013CVPR

  • Current approach to image geolocalization problem:
    • By matching the query image to a database of georeferenced photographs
    • Only works for famous landmarks, but not for the unremarkable scenes
  • Relationship between aerial view and ground-level data
  • Overhead appearance and land cover survey data
    • Densely available for nearly all of the Earth
    • Rich enough for unambiguous matching
  • A cross-view feature translation approach
  • A new dataset with ground-level, aerial, and land cover attribute images for training
  • An aerial image classifier based on ground level scene matches
  • Output of a query: a probability density over the region of interest
  • Experiments over a 1600 km^2 region containing a variety of scenes and land cover types
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Learning deep representations for ground-to-aerial geolocalization [pdf] [slide]
Tsung-Yi Lin and Yin Cui and Serge J. Belongie and James Hays
CVPR 2015
Lin2015CVPR

  • Presents the first general technique for the challenging problem of matching street-level and aerial view images and evaluated it for the task of image geolocalizaiton.
  • Contributions:
    • Localizes a photo without using ground-level reference imagery by matching to aerial imagery
    • Presents a novel method to create a large-scale cross-view training dataset from public data sources
    • Examine traditional computer vision features and several recent deep learning strategies in novel cross-domain learning task
  • Evaluates on new introduced dataset of pairs of Google street-view images and their corresponding aerial images
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
Microsoft COCO: Common Objects in Context [pdf] [slide]
Tsung-Yi Lin and Michael Maire and Serge Belongie and James Hays and Pietro Perona and Deva Ramanan and Piotr Dollar and C. Lawrence Zitnick
ECCV 2014
Lin2014ECCV

  • New dataset to advance state-of-the-art in object recognition, segmentation and captioning
  • Collection of images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context
  • Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations
  • Dataset contains photos of 91 objects types with a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images
  • Extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation
  • Detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet and Sun
  • Baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection using Deformable Parts Model
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Scene Understanding
Single-View 3D Scene Parsing by Attributed Grammar [pdf] [slide]
Liu, Xiaobai and Zhao, Yibiao and Zhu, Song-Chun
CVPR 2014
Liu2014CVPR

  • Single image depth estimation by using a pool of images for which the depth is known
    • A non-parametric approach to retrieve similar images
  • Formulated as discrete-continuous optimization problem
    • Continuous: depth of the superpixels
    • Discrete: relationships between neighboring superpixels (junction potentials to encode occlusions, and smoothness constraints)
  • Inference in a higher order graphical model using particle belief propagation
    • Unary computed by making use of the images with known depth
    • Already state-of-the-art with only unary
  • Experiments on both the indoor (NYU v2) and outdoor (Make3D) scenarios
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Visual Place Recognition: A Survey [pdf] [slide]
Stephanie M. Lowry and Niko Sunderhauf and Paul Newman and John J. Leonard and David D. Cox and Peter I. Corke and Michael J. Milford
TR 2016
Lowry2016TR

  • A comprehensive review of the current state of place recognition research, including its relationship with SLAM, localization, mapping, and recognition
  • Introducing the concepts behind place recognition
    • The role of place recognition in the animal kingdom
    • How a "place" is defined in a robotics context
    • The major components of a place recognition system
  • Discussing how place recognition solutions can implicitly or explicitly account for appearance change within the environment
  • A discussion on the future of visual place recognition with respect to advances in deep learning, semantic scene understanding, and video description
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ReconstructionStereo
Efficient Deep Learning for Stereo Matching [pdf] [slide]
Luo, W. and Schwing, A. and Urtasun, R.
CVPR 2016
Luo2016CVPR

  • Siamese networks for stereo perform well but are slow
  • They propose a very fast matching network
    • Product layer between the siamese networks instead of concatenation
    • Consider multi-class classification problem with the possible disparities as classes
    • Calibrated scores allow to outperform existing approaches
    • Consider several MRFs for smoothing the matching results (cost aggregation, semi global block matching and slanted plane)
  • Evaluation on KITTI 2012 and 2015 benchmarks
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Get Out of My Lab: Large-scale, Real-Time Visual-Inertial Localization [pdf] [slide]
Simon Lynen and Torsten Sattler and Michael Bosse and Joel A. Hesch and Marc Pollefeys and Roland Siegwart
RSS 2015
Lynen2015RSS

  • Demonstrates that large-scale, real-time pose estimation and tracking can be performed on mobile platforms with limited resources without the use of an external server
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes a large-scale system that entirely runs on devices with limited computational & memory resources while offering accurate, real-time localization
    • Proposes a direct inclusion of 2D-3D matches from global localization into the local visual-inertial estimator
    • Leads to smoother trajectories & faster run-times compared to sliding window Bundle Adjustment
  • Evaluates on dataset introduced in the paper
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Learning a Confidence Measure for Optical Flow [pdf] [slide]
Oisin Mac Aodha and Ahmad Humayun and Marc Pollefeys and Gabriel J. Brostow
PAMI 2013
MacAodha2013PAMI

  • Presents a supervised learning based method to estimate a per-pixel confidence for optical flow vectors
  • Contributions:
    • Evaluates the proposed optical flow confidence measure on new flow algorithms & several new sequences
    • Compares to other confidence measures
    • Proposes separate confidence in X and Y directions
    • improves accuracy for optical flow by automatically combining known constituent algorithms
  • Evaluates on Middlebury sequences and synthetic sequences introduced in the paper
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
High-Resolution Semantic Labeling with Convolutional Neural Networks [pdf] [slide]
Emmanuel Maggiori and Yuliya Tarabalka and Guillaume Charpiat andP Pierre Alliez
ARXIV 2016
Maggiori2016ARXIV

  • Dense semantic labeling, assigning a semantic label to every pixel, using CNN
  • High spatial accuracy can not directly be achieved with categorization CNNs
  • In-depth analysis of categorization networks for semantic labeling
  • Establish desired properties of ideal semantic labeling CNN and asses how those methods stand to these properties
  • Derivation of a CNN framework specifically adapted to semantic labeling problem
  • Learning features at different resolutions and efficiently combine local and global information
  • Evaluated on Vaihingen and Potsdam, provided by Commission III of the ISPRS
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Approximate Bayesian Image Interpretation using Generative Probabilistic Graphics Programs [pdf] [slide]
Vikash Mansinghka and Tejas Kulkarni and Yura Perov and Josh Tenenbaum
NIPS 2013
Mansinghka2013NIPS

  • Computer vision as Bayesian inverse problem to computer graphics has proved difficult to directly implement
  • Short, simple probabilistic graphics programs that define flexible generative models and automatically invert them to interpret real-world images
  • Generative probabilistic graphics programs consist of a stochastic scene generator, a renderer based on graphics software and a stochastic likelihood model
  • Stochastic likelihood model links the renderer's output and the data
  • Latent variables adjust the fidelity of the renderer and the tolerance of the likelihood
  • Automatic Metropolis-Hastings transition operators are used to invert the probabilistic graphics programs
  • Demonstration on reading sequence of degraded and adversarially obscured characters and inferring 3D road models (KITTI dataset)
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Classification With an Edge: Improving Semantic Image Segmentation with Boundary Detection [pdf] [slide]
Dimitrios Marmanis and Konrad Schindler and Jan Dirk Wegner and Silvano Galliani and Mihai Datcu and Uwe Stilla
ARXIV 2016
Marmanis2016ARXIV

  • Semantic segmentation of high-resolution aerial images using boundaries
  • DCNNs: Contextual information over very large windows
  • Problem: Loss of spatial resolution, blurry object boundaries
  • Adding boundary detection to SEGNET encoder-decoder architecture, FCN-type models
    • Boundary likelihoods as an additional channel
  • Ensemble prediction with SEGNET, VGG and FCN
  • Boundary detection improves semantic segmentation with CNNs.
  • >90 overall accuracy on the ISPRS Vaihingen bechmark
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images with An Ensemble of Cnns [pdf] [slide]
Marmanis, D. and Wegner, J.~D. and Galliani, S. and Schindler, K. and Datcu, M. and Stilla, U.
APRS 2016
Marmanis2016APRS

  • Presents an end-to-end semantic segmentation deep learning approach of very high resolution aerial images
  • Contributions:
    • Designs a Fully Convolution Network which takes as input intensity and range data
    • Converts early network layers into a pixelwise classification at full resolution with the help of aggressive deconvolution
    • Demonstrates that an ensemble of several networks achieves better results
  • Evaluates on ISPRS semantic labeling benchmark
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Facades
3D All The Way: Semantic Segmentation of Urban Scenes from Start to End in 3D [pdf] [slide]
Anjelo Martinovic and Jan Knopp and Hayko Riemenschneider and Luc Van Gool
CVPR 2015
Martinovic2015CVPR

  • Semantic segmentation of 3D city models
  • Starting from an SfM reconstruction, classification and facade modelling purely in 3D
  • No need for slow image-based semantic segmentation methods
  • High quality labellings, with significant speed benefits (20times faster, entire streets in a matter of minutes)
  • Combining a state-of-the-art 2D classifier: further boosting the performance (slower)
  • A novel facade separation based on the results of semantic facade analysis
  • 3D-specific principles like alignment, symmetry in a framework optimized using integer quadratic programming formulation
  • Evaluated on Rue-Monge2014
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Facades
ATLAS: A Three-Layered Approach to Facade Parsing [pdf] [slide]
Markus Mathias and Andelo Martinovic and Luc Van Gool
IJCV 2016
Mathias2016IJCV

  • Semantic segmentation of building facades
  • Three distinct layers representing different levels of abstraction:
    • Segmentation into regions with probability distribution over semantic classes
    • Detect objects to improve initial labeling with object detector
    • Combination of segmentation and object detection with a CRF
    • Incorporate additional meta-knowledge in form of weak architectural principles which enforces architectural plausibility
  • Outperform state-of-the-art on ECP and eTRIMS dataset
  • Output of highest layer used for procedural building reconstruction
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
HD Maps: Fine-Grained Road Segmentation by Parsing Ground and Aerial Images [pdf] [slide]
Mattyus, Gellert and Wang, Shenlong and Fidler, Sanja and Urtasun, Raquel
CVPR 2016
Mattyus2016CVPR

  • Fine-grained segmentation for fully autonomous systems parking spots, side-walk, background, number and location of road lanes
  • Alternatives:
    • Many man-hours of laborious and tedious labelling
    • Imagery/LIDAR from millions of cars
  • Using monocular aerial imagery, topology of the road network from OpenStreetMap, and stereo images taken from a camera on top of a car
  • Accurate alignment between two types of imagery
  • A set of potentials exploiting semantic cues, road constraints, relationships between parallel roads, and smoothness assumptions
  • Enhancing KITTI with aerial images: Air-Ground-KITTI
  • Significantly reduced alignment error compared to a GPS+IMU system
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
HD Maps: Fine-Grained Road Segmentation by Parsing Ground and Aerial Images [pdf] [slide]
Mattyus, Gellert and Wang, Shenlong and Fidler, Sanja and Urtasun, Raquel
CVPR 2016
Mattyus2016CVPR

  • Fine-grained segmentation for fully autonomous systems parking spots, side-walk, background, number and location of road lanes
  • Alternatives:
    • Many man-hours of laborious and tedious labelling
    • Imagery/LIDAR from millions of cars
  • Using monocular aerial imagery, topology of the road network from OpenStreetMap, and stereo images taken from a camera on top of a car
  • Accurate alignment between two types of imagery
  • A set of potentials exploiting semantic cues, road constraints, relationships between parallel roads, and smoothness assumptions
  • Enhancing KITTI with aerial images: Air-Ground-KITTI
  • Significantly reduced alignment error compared to a GPS+IMU system
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Enhancing Road Maps by Parsing Aerial Images Around the World [pdf] [slide]
Gellert Mattyus and Shenlong Wang and Sanja Fidler and Raquel Urtasun
ICCV 2015
Mattyus2015ICCV

  • Exploit aerial images in order to enhance freely available world maps (eg, with road geometry)
  • Formulation as inference in a Markov random field
  • Parametrized in terms of the location of road-segment centerlines and width
  • Parametrization allows efficient inference and returns only topologically correct roads
  • Energy encodes the appearance of roads, edge information, car detection, contextual features, relations between nearby roads as well as smoothness between the line segments
  • All OpenStreetMaps roads in the whole world can be segmented in a single day using small cluster of 10 computers
  • Good generalization: can be trained using only 1.5km^2 aerial imagery and produce very accurate results in any location across the world
  • Outperforming state-of-the-art on two novel benchmarks
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
A Large Dataset to Train Convolutional Networks for Disparity, Optical Flow, and Scene Flow Estimation [pdf] [slide]
N. Mayer and E. Ilg and P. Haeusser and P. Fischer and D. Cremers and A. Dosovitskiy and T. Brox
CVPR 2016
Mayer2016CVPR

  • Introduces a synthetic dataset containing over 35000 stereo image pairs with ground truth disparity, optical flow, and scene flow
  • Synthetic dataset suite consists of three subsets
    • FlyingThings3D is 25000 stereo frames with ground truth data of everyday objects flying along randomized 3D trajectories
    • Monkaa contains nonrigid and softly articulated motion as well as visually challenging fur, made from the open source Blender assets of the animated short film Monkaa
    • The Driving dataset is comprises naturalistic, dynamic street scenes from the viewpoint of a driving car, made to resemble the KITTI datasets
  • Demonstrates that the dataset can indeed be used to successfully train large convolutional networks
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of 3D Data
SemanticFusion: Dense 3D Semantic Mapping with Convolutional Neural Networks [pdf] [slide]
John McCormac and Ankur Handa and Andrew J. Davison and Stefan Leutenegger
ARXIV 2016
McCormac2016ARXIV

  • Extends SLAM system to contain semantics in addition to geometry and appearences.
  • Pipeline is composed of three separate units:
    • A real-time SLAM system ElasticFusion to provide correspondences between frames, and a globally consistent map of fused surfels
    • A Convolutional Neural Network recieves a 2D image (RGBD), and returns a set of per pixel class probabilities
    • Bayesian update scheme to update the class probability distribution for each surfel, obtained from the CNNs predictions using the correspondences provided by the SLAM system
  • Evaluates on NYUv2 dataset
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Cameras Models & CalibrationOmnidirectional Cameras
Single View Point Omnidirectional Camera Calibration from Planar Grids [pdf] [slide]
C. Mei and P. Rives
ICRA 2007
Mei2007ICRA

  • Flexible approach for calibrating omnidirectional single viewpoint sensors from planar grids
  • Based on exact theoretical projection function with added well identified parameters to model real-world errors
  • Reduce large number of parameters necessary for Gonzalez-Barbosa method using the assumption that the errors are small due to the assembly of the system
  • Using the unified model of Barreto-Geyer to obtain a calibration valid for all central catadioptric systems
  • Selection of only four points necessary for the initialization of each calibration grid
  • Validation with calibration of parabolic, hyperbolic, folded mirror, wide-angle and spherical sensors
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles [pdf] [slide]
Moritz Menze and Andreas Geiger
CVPR 2015
Menze2015CVPR

  • Existing methods don't exploit fact that outdoor scenes can be decomposed into small number of independently moving 3D objects
  • Absence of realistic benchmarks with scene flow ground truth
  • Contributions:
    • Exploits the decomposition of the scene as collection of rigid objects
    • Reasoning jointly about this decomposition as well as the geometry and motion of objects in the scene
    • Introduces the first realistic and large-scale scene flow dataset
  • Evaluates on stereo and flow KITTI benchmarks
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Motion & Pose Estimation3D Motion Estimation -- Scene Flow
Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles [pdf] [slide]
Moritz Menze and Andreas Geiger
CVPR 2015
Menze2015CVPR

  • Existing methods don't exploit fact that outdoor scenes can be decomposed into small number of independently moving 3D objects
  • Absence of realistic benchmarks with scene flow ground truth
  • Contributions:
    • Exploits the decomposition of the scene as collection of rigid objects
    • Reasoning jointly about this decomposition as well as the geometry and motion of objects in the scene
    • Introduces the first realistic and large-scale scene flow dataset
  • Evaluates on stereo and flow KITTI benchmarks
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Discrete Optimization for Optical Flow [pdf] [slide]
Moritz Menze and Christian Heipke and Andreas Geiger
GCPR 2015
Menze2015GCPR

  • Optical flow as a discrete inference problem in a CRF, followed by sub-pixel refinement
  • Diverse (500) flow proposals by approximate nearest neighbour search based on appearance (Daisy), and by respecting NMS constraints
  • Pre-computation of truncated pairwise potentials, further accelerated via hashing
  • BCD by iteratively updating alternating image rows and columns
  • Post-processing as forward backward consistency check and removing small segments
  • Epic Flow for interpolation
  • Evaluated on Sintel and KITTI benchmarks
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Motion & Pose Estimation3D Motion Estimation -- Scene Flow
Joint 3D Estimation of Vehicles and Scene Flow [pdf] [slide]
Moritz Menze and Christian Heipke and Andreas Geiger
ISA 2015
Menze2015ISA

  • Existing slanted plane models for scene flow estimation only reason about segmentation and the motion of the vehicles in the scene
  • Contributions:
    • Jointly reasons about 3D scene flow as well as the pose, shape and motion of vehicles in the scene
    • Incorporates a deformable CAD model into a slanted-plane CRF for scene flow estimation
    • Enforces shape consistency between the rendered 3D models and the superpixels in the image
  • Evaluates on scene flow benchmark on KITTI
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Piecewise planar city 3D modeling from street view panoramic sequences. [pdf] [slide]
Micusik, Branislav and Kosecka, Jana
CVPR 2009
Micusik2009CVPR

  • Unified framework for creating 3D city models
  • Exploiting image segmentation cues, dominant scene orientations and piecewise planar structures
  • Pose estimation with a modified SURF-based matching approach to exploit properties of the panoramic camera
  • Multi-view stereo method that operates directly on panoramas while enforcing the piecewise planarity constraint in the sweeping stage
  • Depth fusion method which exploits the constraints of urban environments combines advantages from volumetric- and viewpoint-based fusion
  • Avoids expensive voxelization of space and operates directly on 3D reconstructed points through effective kd-tree
  • Final surface by tessellation of backprojections of the points into the reference image
  • Demonstration on two street-view sequences, only qualitative results
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
MOT16: A Benchmark for Multi-Object Tracking [pdf] [slide]
Anton Milan and Laura Leal-Taixe and Ian D. Reid and Stefan Roth and Konrad Schindler
ARXIV 2016
Milan2016ARXIV

  • Standardized benchmark for Multi-Object tracking
  • New releases of MOTChallenge
  • Unlike the initial release
    • Carefully annotated by researchers following a consistent protocol
    • Significant increase in the number of labeled boxes, 3 times more targets
    • Multi object classes besides pedestrians
    • Visibility for every single object of interest
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Tracking
Continuous Energy Minimization for Multitarget Tracking [pdf] [slide]
Milan, A. and Roth, S. and Schindler, K.
PAMI 2014
Milan2014PAMI

  • Contributions:
    • Proposes an energy that corresponds to a more complete representation of the problem, rather than one that is amenable to global optimization
    • Besides the image evidence, the energy function takes into account physical constraints, such as target dynamics, mutual exclusion, and track persistence
    • Constructs a optimization scheme that alternates between continuous conjugate gradient descent and discrete trans-dimensional jump moves
  • Evaluates on sequences from VS-PETS 2009/2010, TUD-Stadtmitte benchmarks
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Tracking
Detection- and Trajectory-Level Exclusion in Multiple Object Tracking [pdf] [slide]
Anton Milan and Konrad Schindler and Stefan Roth
CVPR 2013
Milan2013CVPR

  • Tracking multiple targets in crowded scenarios
  • Modelling mutual exclusion between distinct targets both at the data association and at the trajectory level
  • Using a mixed discrete-continuous CRF
    • Exclusion between conflicting observations with supermodular pairwise terms
    • Exclusion between trajectories with pairwise global label costs
  • A statistical analysis of ground-truth trajectories for modelling data fidelity, target dynamics, and inter-target occlusion
  • An expansion move-based optimization scheme
  • Evaluated on the PETS S2.L1, and four more sequences from PETS benchmark, TUD-Stadtmitte, and Bahnhof, Sunny Day sequences from ETH Mobile Scene dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Fast Techniques for Monocular Visual Odometry [pdf] [slide]
Mohammad Hossein Mirabdollah and Barbel Mertsching
GCPR 2015
Mirabdollah2015GCPR

  • Real-time and robust monocular visual odometry
  • Iterative 5-point method to estimate initial camera motion parameters within RANSAC
  • Landmark localization with uncertainties using a probabilistic triangulation method
  • Robust tracking of low quality features on ground planes to estimate scale of motion
  • Minimization of a cost function:
    • Epipolar geometry constraints for far landmarks
    • Projective constraints for close landmarks
  • Real-time due to iterative estimation of only the last camera pose (landmark positions from probabilistic triangulation method)
  • Evaluated on KITTI visual odometry dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
On the Second Order Statistics of Essential Matrix Elements [pdf] [slide]
Mohammad Hossein Mirabdollah and Barbel Mertsching
GCPR 2014
Mirabdollah2014GCPR

  • Relative monocular camera motion estimation based on the coplanarity constraint
  • 8-point methods have poor performance in the presence of noise
  • Investigation of the second order statistics of essential matrix elements
  • Using Taylor expansion for a rotation matrix up to second order terms a covariance matrix is obtained
  • Covariance matrix is utilized along with the coplanarity equations and acts as regularization term
  • Considerable improvements in the recovery of the camera motion
  • Evaluation based on simulation and on the KITTI dataset for visual odometry
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Tracking
Taking Mobile Multi-object Tracking to the Next Level: People, Unknown Objects, and Carried Items [pdf] [slide]
Dennis Mitzel and Bastian Leibe
ECCV 2012
Mitzel2012ECCV

  • Mobile multi-object tracking in challenging street scenes
  • Tracking-by-detection limits to object categories of pre-trained detector models
  • Tracking-before-detection approach that can track known and unknown object categories
  • Noisy stereo depth data used to segment and track objects in 3D
  • Novel, compact 3D representation allows to track robustly large variety of objects while building up models of their 3D shape online
  • Comparison of the representation with a learned statistical shape template allows to detect anomalous shapes such as carried items
  • Evaluation on several challenging video sequences of busy pedestrian zones, the BAHNHOF and SUNNY DAY dataset 1


1. Ess, A., Leibe, B., Schindler, K., Van Gool, L.: Robust Multi-Person Tracking from a Mobile Platform. PAMI 31(10), 18311846 (2009)
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Semantic SegmentationRoad Segmentation
Deep Deconvolutional Networks for Scene Parsing [pdf] [slide]
Rahul Mohan
ARXIV 2014
Moh2014ARXIV

  • Labeling each pixel in an image with the category it belongs to
  • Using raw pixels instead of superpixels
  • Combine deep deconvolutional neural networks with CNNs
  • Multi patch training makes it possible to effectively learn spatial priors from scenes
  • End-to-end training system without requiring post-processing
  • Evaluated on Stanford Background, SIFT Flow, CamVid, and KITTI
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Semantic segmentation of aerial images in urban areas with class-specific higher-order cliques [pdf] [slide]
J. Montoya and J. D. Wegner and L. Ladicky and K. Schindler
CPIA 2015
Montoya2015CPIA

  • Semantic segmentation of urban areas in high-resolution aerial images
  • Highly heterogeneous object appearances and shape
  • Using high-level shape representations as class-specific object priors
    • Buildings by sets of compact polygons
    • Roads as a collection of long, narrow segments 1
  • Pixel-wise classifier to learn local co-occurrence patterns
  • Hypotheses generation for possible road segments and segments of buildings in a data-driven manner
  • Inference in a CRF with higher-order potentials
  • Accuracies of > 80 on Vaihingen dataset


1. Mind the Gap: Modeling Local and Global Context in (Road) Networks, GCPR 2014
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Mind the Gap: Modeling Local and Global Context in (Road) Networks [pdf] [slide]
Javier A. Montoya-Zegarra and Jan Dirk Wegner and Lubor Ladicky and Konrad Schindler
GCPR 2014
Montoya-Zegarra2014GCPR

  • Road labeling in aerial images and extraction of a topologically correct road network
  • Model rich and complicated contextual information at two levels
    • Locally, the context and layout of roads is learned implicitly including multi-scale appearance information
    • Globally, the network structure is enforced explicitly
  • Detect promising stretches of road via shortest-path search on per pixel evidence
  • Select pixels on an optimal subset of the paths by energy minimization in a high-order CRF
  • Outperforms several baselines on two challenging data sets Graz and Vaihingen in precision and topological correctness
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Cameras Models & CalibrationEvent Cameras
Lifetime estimation of events from Dynamic Vision Sensors [pdf] [slide]
Elias Mueggler and Christian Forster and Nathan Baumli and Guillermo Gallego and Davide Scaramuzza
ICRA 2015
Mueggler2015ICRA

  • Estimating the "life-time" of events from retinal cameras
  • Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS)
    • Transmitting only pixel-level brightness changes ("events") at the time they occur with micro-second resolution
    • Low latency and sparse output: suitable for high-speed mobile robotic applications
  • Stream of augmented events from the event's velocity on the image plane
  • A continuous representation of events in time rather than the accumulation of events over fixed, artificially-chosen time intervals
  • An event-based, robust plane fitting algorithm with minimum latency (by considering only past events in the neighborhood of the current event) and optional regularization
  • Evaluated in controlled environments, urban settings, high-speed quadrotor flips
  • Compared to standard visualization methods for the rendering of sharp gradient images at any time instant
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Cameras Models & CalibrationEvent Cameras
Continuous-Time Trajectory Estimation for Event-based Vision Sensors [pdf] [slide]
Elias Mueggler and Guillermo Gallego and Davide Scaramuzza
RSS 2015
Mueggler2015RSS

  • Ego-motion estimation for an event-based vision sensor using a continuous-time framework
  • Directly integrating the information conveyed by the sensor
  • Pose trajectory is approximated by a smooth curve using cubic splines in the space of rigid-body motions
  • Optimization according a geometrically meaningful error measure in the image plane to the observed events
  • Evaluation on datasets acquired from sensor-in-the-loop simulations and onboard a quadrotor performing flips with ground truth
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Semantic SegmentationRoad Segmentation
Stacked Hierarchical Labeling [pdf] [slide]
Daniel Munoz and J. Andrew Bagnell and Martial
ECCV 2010
Munoz2010ECCV

  • Hierarchical approach for labeling semantic objects and regions in scenes
  • Using a decomposition of the image in order to encode relational and spatial information
  • Directly training a hierarchical inference procedure inspired by message passing
  • Breaking the complex inference problem into a hierarchical series of simple subproblems
  • Each subproblem is designed to capture the image and contextual statistics in the scene
  • Training in sequence to ensure robustness to likely errors earlier in the inference sequence
  • Evaluation on MSRC-21 and Stanford Background datasets
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
ORB-SLAM: A Versatile and Accurate Monocular SLAM System [pdf] [slide]
Raul Mur-Artal and J. M. M. Montiel and Juan D. Tardos
TR 2015
Mur-Artal2015TR

  • Proposes a feature-based monocular SLAM system that operates in real time, in small and large, indoor and outdoor environments
  • Contributions:
    • Uses same features for all tasks: tracking, mapping, relocalization and loop closing
    • Real time operation in large environments
    • Real time loop closing based on the optimization of a pose graph
    • Real time camera relocalization with significant invariance to viewpoint and illumination
    • New initialization procedure based on model selection
    • A survival of the fittest approach to map point and keyframe selection
  • Evaluates on sequences from NewCollege, TUM RGB-D and KITTI datasets
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
ORB-SLAM: A Versatile and Accurate Monocular SLAM System [pdf] [slide]
Raul Mur-Artal and J. M. M. Montiel and Juan D. Tardos
TR 2015
Mur-Artal2015TR

  • Proposes a feature-based monocular SLAM system that operates in real time, in small and large, indoor and outdoor environments
  • Contributions:
    • Uses same features for all tasks: tracking, mapping, relocalization and loop closing
    • Real time operation in large environments
    • Real time loop closing based on the optimization of a pose graph
    • Real time camera relocalization with significant invariance to viewpoint and illumination
    • New initialization procedure based on model selection
    • A survival of the fittest approach to map point and keyframe selection
  • Evaluates on sequences from NewCollege, TUM RGB-D and KITTI datasets
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ReconstructionMulti-view 3D Reconstruction
A Survey of Urban Reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Przemyslaw Musialski and Peter Wonka and Daniel G. Aliaga and Michael Wimmer and Luc J. Van Gool and Werner Purgathofer
CGF 2013
Musialski2013CGF

  • Challenges - Full automation, Quality & scalability, data acquisition constraints
  • Point Clouds & Cameras - introduce the Fundamentals of Stereo Vision, provides the key concepts of image-based automatic Structure from Motion methodology, and Multi-View Stereo approaches
  • Buildings & Semantics - Approaches which aim at reconstructing whole buildings from various input sources, such as a set of photographs or laser-scanned points, typically by fitting some parametrised top-town building model
  • Facades & Images - Approaches aiming at the reconstruction and representation of facades
  • Blocks & Cities - The problem of measuring and documenting the world is the objective of the photogrammetry and remote sensing community
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Map-based priors for localization [pdf] [slide]
Sang Min Oh and Sarah Tariq and Bruce N. Walker and Frank Dellaert
IROS 2004
Oh2004IROS

  • Map-based priors for localization using the semantic information available in maps
  • Biases the motion model towards areas of higher probability
  • Easily incorporated in the particle filter by means of a pseudo likelihood under a particular assumption
  • Localization with noisy sensors results in far more stable local tracking
  • Experimental results on a GPS-based outdoor people tracker
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Semantic SegmentationRoad Segmentation
Efficient Deep Methods for Monocular Road Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Gabriel Oliveira and Wolfram Burgard and Thomas Brox
IROS 2016
Oliveira2016IROS

  • An incremental 3D representation from 3D range measurements
  • Macro scale polygonal primitives vs. micro scale primitives (not compact)
  • Motivation:
    • Processing large amounts of 3D data
    • Large number of well defined geometric structures
  • Reconstruction of large scale scenarios
  • Update of geometric polygonal primitives over time with fresh sensor data
  • Accurate, compact, and efficient descriptions of the scene
  • Evaluated on a data-set from MIT, taken from their participation in the DARPA Urban Challenge
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Scene Understanding
Incremental scenario representations for autonomous driving using geometric polygonal primitives [pdf] [slide]
Viviane M. de Oliveira and Vtor Santos and Angel Domingo Sappa and Paulo Dias and A. Paulo Moreira
RAS 2016
Oliveira2016RAS

  • Incremental 3D representation of a scene from continuous stream of 3D range sensor
  • Using Macro scale polygonal primitives to model the scene
  • Representation of the scene is a list of large scale polygons describing the geometric structure
  • Approach to update the geometric polygonal primitives over time using fresh sensor data
  • Produces accurate descriptions of the scene and is computationally very efficient compared to other reconstruction methods
  • Evaluation on a dataset from the MIT team taken in the DARPA Urban Challenge
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Effective semantic pixel labelling with convolutional networks and Conditional Random Fields [pdf] [slide]
Sakrapee Paisitkriangkrai and Jamie Sherrah and Pranam Janney and Anton van den Hengel
CVPRWORK 2015
Paisitkriangkrai2015CVPRWORK

  • Effective semantic pixel labelling for aerial imagery
  • Using CNN features, hand-crafted features and a Conditional Random Fields
  • CNN and hand-crafted features are applied to dense image patches to produce per pixel class probabilities
  • Pixel-level CRF infers a labelling that smooths regions while respecting the edges
  • Combination boosts the labelling accuracy
  • Evaluation on the ISPRS 2D semantic labelling challenge dataset
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Motion & Pose EstimationSimultaneous Localization and Mapping
FAB-MAP 3D: Topological mapping with spatial and visual appearance [pdf] [slide]
Paul, Rohan and Newman, Paul
ICRA 2010
Paul2010ICRA

  • A probabilistic framework for appearance based navigation and mapping using spatial and visual appearance data
  • A bag-of-words approach in which positive or negative observations of visual words in a scene are used to discriminate between already visited and new places
  • Explicitly modelling of the spatial distribution of visual words as a random graph in which nodes are visual words and edges are distributions over distances
  • Representing locations as random graphs and learning a generative model over word occurrences as well as their spatial distributions
  • Special care for multi-modal distributions of inter-word spacing and for sensor errors both in word detection and distances
  • Viewpoint invariant inter-word distances as strong place signatures
  • Evaluated on a dataset gathered within New College, Oxford
  • Increased precision-recall area compared to a state-of-the-art visual appearance only
  • Reduced false positive and false negative rate by capturing spatial information, particularly in loop closure decision hinges
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Object Detection3D Object Detection from 2D Images
Multi-View and 3D Deformable Part Models [pdf] [slide]
Bojan Pepik and Michael Stark and Peter V. Gehler and Bernt Schiele
PAMI 2015
Pepik2015PAMI

  • Joint object localization and viewpoint estimation
  • Motivation
    • Limited expressiveness of 2D feature-based models
    • 3D object representations which can be robustly matched to image evidence
  • Extension of DPM to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information
    • DPM as a structured output prediction task
    • Consistency between parts across viewpoints
    • Modelling the parts positions and displacement distributions in 3D
    • Continuous appearance model
  • Several different models with different level of expressiveness
  • Leveraging 3D information from CAD data
  • Better than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on KITTI, 3D object classes, Pascal3D+, Pascal VOC 2007, EPFL multi-view cars
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Robust stereo visual odometry from monocular techniques [pdf] [slide]
Mikael Persson and Tommaso Piccini and Michael Felsberg and Rudolf Mester
IV 2015
Persson2015IV

  • Presents a novel stereo visual odometry system for automotive applications based on advanced monocular techniques.
  • Contributions:
    • Hypothesise that techniques developed for monocular visual odometry systems would be, in general, more refined and robust since they have to deal with an intrinsically more difficult problem
    • Shows that the generalization of these techniques to the stereo case result in a significant improvement of the robustness and accuracy of stereo based visual odometry
  • Evaluates on KITTI dataset
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RepresentationsStixels
Towards a Global Optimal Multi-Layer Stixel Representation of Dense 3D Data [pdf] [slide]
David Pfeiffer and Uwe Franke
BMVC 2011
Pfeiffer2011BMVC

  • Medium level representation: thin planar rectangles called Stixels
  • Motivation:
    • Dominance of horizontal, vertical planar surfaces in man-made environments
    • Structured access to the scene data
    • Half a million disparity measurements to a few hundred Stixels only
  • Difference to BadinoDAGM20091:
    • A unified global optimal scheme
    • Objects at multiple depths in a column
  • Dynamic programming to incorporate real-world constraints (gravity, ordering)
  • An optimal segmentation with respect to free space and obstacle information
  • Results for stereo vision and laser data, but applicable to 3D data from other sensors


1. The stixel world - a compact medium level representation of the 3d-world. DAGM 2009
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RepresentationsStixels
Efficient representation of traffic scenes by means of dynamic stixels [pdf] [slide]
Pfeiffer, D. and Franke, U.
IV 2010
Pfeiffer2010IV

  • Pose and motion estimation of moving obstacles in traffic scenes
  • Stixel World is a compact and flexible representation but do not allow to infer motion information
  • Dense disparity images are used for the free space computation and extraction of the static stixel representation
  • Tracking of stixels using 6-Vision Kalman filter framework and dense optical flow
  • Lateral as well as longitudinal motion is estimated for each stixel
  • Simplifies grouping of stixels based on the motion as well as detection of moving obstacles
  • Demonstration on recorded data
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
High-performance long range obstacle detection using stereo vision [pdf] [slide]
Peter Pinggera and Uwe Franke and Rudolf Mester
IROS 2015
Pinggera2015IROS

  • Existing methods designed for robust generic obstacle detection based on geometric criteria work best only in close to medium range applications
  • Contributions:
    • Presents a novel method for the joint detection and localization of distant obstacles using a stereo vision system on a moving platform
    • The proposed algorithm is based on statistical hypothesis tests using local geometric criteria and can implicitly handle non-flat ground surfaces
    • Operates directly on image data instead of precomputed stereo disparity maps
  • Evaluates on stereo sequences introduced in Cordts et al., Object-level Priors for Stixel Generation
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ReconstructionStereo
Know Your Limits: Accuracy of Long Range Stereoscopic Object Measurements in Practice [pdf] [slide]
Peter Pinggera and David Pfeiffer and Uwe Franke and Rudolf Mester
ECCV 2014
Pinggera2014ECCV

  • Determining the location and velocity of potential obstacles for autonomous vehicles or advanced driver assistance systems
  • Middlebury and KITTI provide important reference values but do not sufficiently treat local sub-pixel matching accuracy
  • Comprehensive statistical evaluation of selected state-of-the-art stereo matching approaches on an extensive dataset
  • Establishing reference values for the precision limits actually achievable in practice
  • For a carefully calibrated camera setup under real-world imagining conditions a consistent error limit of 1/10 pixel is determined
  • Guidelines on algorithmic choices derived from theory to achieve this limit in practice
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Semantic SegmentationRoad/Lane Detection
Lost and Found: detecting small road hazards for self-driving vehicles [pdf] [slide]
Peter Pinggera and Sebastian Ramos and Stefan Gehrig and Uwe Franke and Carsten Rother and Rudolf Mester
IROS 2016
Pinggera2016IROS

  • Reliable detection of small obstacles from a moving vehicle using stereo vision
  • Statistical planar hypothesis tests in disparity space directly on stereo image data, assessing free-space and obstacle hypotheses
  • Introduce midlevel obstacle representation Cluster-Stixels based on the original point-based output
  • Does not depend on a global road model and handles static and moving obstacles
  • Evaluation on a novel lost-cargo image sequence dataset comprising more than two thousand frames with pixel-wise annotations
  • Comparison to several stereo-based baseline methods and runs at 20Hz on 2 mega-pixel stereo imagery
  • Small obstalces down to the height of 5 cm can successfully be detected at 20 m
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Object DetectionHuman Pose Estimation
DeepCut: Joint Subset Partition and Labeling for Multi Person Pose Estimation [pdf] [slide]
Pishchulin, Leonid and Insafutdinov, Eldar and Tang, Siyu and Andres, Bjoern and Andriluka, Mykhaylo and Gehler, Peter V. and Schiele, Bernt
CVPR 2016
Pishchulin2016CVPR

  • Existing methods for human pose estimation use two-stage strategies that separate the detection and pose estimation steps
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes a new formulation as a joint subset partitioning and labeling problem (SPLP) of a set of body-part hypotheses generated with CNN-based part detectors
    • SPLP model jointly infers the number of people, their poses, spatial proximity, and part level occlusions
    • Results show that a joint formulation is crucial to disambiguate multiple and potentially overlapping persons
  • Evaluates on LSP and MPII single-person benchmarks and MPII and WAF multi-person benchmarks
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation
Full-Resolution Residual Networks for Semantic Segmentation in Street Scenes [pdf] [slide]
Tobias Pohlen and Alexander Hermans and Markus Mathias and Bastian Leibe
ARXIV 2016
Pohlen2016ARXIV

  • Existing methods additional processing steps have to be performed in order to obtain pixel-accurate segmentation masks at the full image resolution
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes a novel ResNet-like architecture that exhibits strong localization and recognition performance
    • Combines multi-scale context with pixel-level accuracy by using two processing streams within the network
    • One stream carries information at the full image resolution, enabling precise adherence to segment boundaries. The other stream undergoes a sequence of pooling operations to obtain robust features for recognition
    • The two streams are coupled at the full image resolution using residuals
  • Evaluates on the Cityscapes dataset
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ReconstructionReconstruction & Recognition
Detailed Real-Time Urban 3D Reconstruction from Video [pdf] [slide]
Pollefeys, M.
IJCV 2008
Pollefeys2008IJCV

  • Large scale, real-time 3D reconstruction incorporating GPS and INS or traditional SfM
  • Motivation:
    • The massive amounts of data
    • Lack of public high-quality ground-based models
  • Real-time performance (30Hz) using graphics hardware and standard CPUs
  • Extending state-of-the-art for robustness and variability necessary for outside:
    • Large dynamic range: automatic gain adaptation for real-time stereo estimation
  • Fusion with GPS and inertial measurements using a Kalman filter
  • Two-step stereo reconstruction process exploiting the redundancy across frames
  • Real urban video sequences with hundreds of thousands of frames on GPU
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
UnrealCV: Connecting Computer Vision to Unreal Engine [pdf] [slide]
Weichao Qiu and Alan L. Yuille
ARXIV 2016
Qiu2016ARXIV

  • Computer graphics can generate synthetic images and ground truth (object instance mask, depth, surface normal) while offering the possibility of constructing virtual worlds
  • Building on effort of game industry to create realistic 3D worlds, which a player can interact with
  • Access and modify the internal data structure of games to create virtual worlds, extracting groundtruth and controlling an agent
  • Created a open-source plugin UnrealCV for a popular game engine Unreal Engine 4
  • Linking Caffe with the virtual world to train/test deep networks
  • Diagnosing Faster-RCNN trained on PASCAL by testing it on the virtual world with varying rendering configurations
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Motion & Pose Estimation3D Motion Estimation -- Scene Flow
Dense, Robust, and Accurate Motion Field Estimation from Stereo Image Sequences in Real-Time [pdf] [slide]
Clemens Rabe and Thomas Mueller and Andreas Wedel and Uwe Franke
ECCV 2010
Rabe2010ECCV

  • Estimating the three-dimensional motion vector field from stereo image sequences
  • Combining variational optical flow with Kalman filtering for temporal smoothness
  • Real-time with parallel implementation on a GPU and an FPGA
  • Comparing
    • Differential motion field estimation from optical flow (Horn & Schunck) and stereo (SGM)
    • Variational scene flow from two frames
    • Kalman filtered method, using dense optical flow and stereo (Dense6D)
    • Filtered variational scene flow approach (Variational6D)
  • Dense6D and Variational6D perform similarly, the latter is computationally more complex.
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Non-local Total Generalized Variation for Optical Flow Estimation [pdf] [slide]
Rene Ranftl and Kristian Bredies and Thomas Pock
ECCV 2014
Ranftl2014ECCV

  • Total Generalized Variation
    • Performs quite well favoring piecewise affine solutions
    • Local nature can suffer from ambiguities in the data and cannot accurately locate discontinuities
  • Contribution
    • Non local TGV that allows to incorporate prior information as image gradients
    • Scale invariant Census using a radial sampling strategy
  • Evaluation on Sintel and KITTI 2012
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ReconstructionStereo
Minimizing TGV-based Variational Models with Non-Convex Data terms [pdf] [slide]
Rene Ranftl and Thomas Pock and Horst Bischof
SSVM 2013
Ranftl2013SSVM

  • Approximate minimization of variational models with Total Generalized Variation regularization (TGV) and non-convex data terms
  • Motivation:
    • TGV is arguably a better prior than TV (piecewise affine solutions)
    • TGV is restricted to convex data terms
    • Convex approximations to the non-convex problem (coarse-to-fine warping: loss of details)
  • Decomposition of the functional into two subproblems which can be solved globally
  • One is convex, the other by lifting the functional to a higher dimensional space, where it is convex
  • Significant improvement compared to coarse-to-fine warping on stereo
  • Evaluated on KITTI stereo and Middlebury high-resolution benchmarks
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Motion & Pose Estimation2D Motion Estimation -- Optical Flow
Optical Flow Estimation using a Spatial Pyramid Network [pdf] [slide]
Anurag Ranjan and Michael J. Black
ARXIV 2016
Ranjan2016ARXIV

  • Optical flow estimation with a coarse-to-fine deep learning approach
  • Image pyramid as in the standard variational formulations
  • Each layer a convolutional neural network estimates flow update of the warped images
  • Small networks with 5 convolutional layers sufficient because of small motions
  • Each network is trained independently
  • Learned filters resemble spatio-temporal filters
  • 96 smaller and faster than FlowNet
  • Attractive for embedded systems
  • Outperforms FlowNet on Sintel and Middlebury
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Object Detection2D Object Detection
Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks [pdf] [slide]
Shaoqing Ren and Kaiming He and Ross B. Girshick and Jian Sun
NIPS 2015
Ren2015NIPS

  • Region Proposal Network (RPN) for object detection
  • Simultaneous prediction of object bounds and objectness scores at each position
  • Region proposals are the computational bottleneck for state-of-the-art detectors.
  • End-to-end training to generate region proposals for Fast R-CNN
  • Nearly cost-free region proposals
  • RPNs: a kind of fully-convolutional network (FCN)
  • Alternating optimization to train RPN and Fast R-CNN with shared features
  • 5 fps (including all steps) on a GPU
  • State-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
Playing for Data: Ground Truth from Computer Games [pdf] [slide]
Stephan R. Richter and Vibhav Vineet and Stefan Roth and Vladlen Koltun
ECCV 2016
Richter2016ECCV

  • Creating pixel-accurate semantic label maps for images extracted from computer games
  • A wrapper between the game and the graphics hardware
    • Pixel-accurate object signatures across time and instances
    • By hashing distinct rendering resources such as geometry, textures, and shaders
  • 25 thousand images
  • Models trained with game data and just 13 of the CamVid training set outperform models trained on the complete CamVid training set
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of 3D Data
OctNet: Learning Deep 3D Representations at High Resolutions [pdf] [slide]
Gernot Riegler and Ali Osman Ulusoy and Andreas Geiger
ARXIV 2016
Riegler2016ARXIV

  • Deep and high resolution 3D convolutional networks for 3D tasks including 3D object classification, orientation estimation, and point cloud labelling
  • High activations only near the object boundaries
  • More memory and computation on relevant dense regions by exploiting sparsity
  • Hierarchically partitioning of the space using a set of unbalanced octrees where each leaf node stores a pooled feature representation
  • Deeper networks without compromising resolution
  • Convolution, pooling, unpooling directly defined on this structure
  • Higher input resolutions with significant speed-ups
    • Particularly beneficial for orientation estimation and semantic point cloud labelling
  • Evaluated on ModelNet10, RueMonge2014
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Semantic SegmentationSemantic Segmentation of Facades
Learning Where to Classify in Multi-view Semantic Segmentation [pdf] [slide]
Hayko Riemenschneider and Andras Bodis-Szomoru and Julien Weissenberg and Luc Van Gool
ECCV 2014
Riemenschneider2014ECCV

  • View overlap is ignored by existing work in semantic scene labelling, and features in all views for all surface parts are extracted redundantly and expensively
  • Contributions:
    • Proposes an alternative approach for multi-view semantic labelling, efficiently combining the geometry of the 3D model and the appearance of a single, appropriately chosen view - denoted as reducing view redundancy
    • Show the beneficial effect of reducing the initial labelling to a well-chosen subset of discriminative surface parts, and then using these labels to infer the labels of the remaining surface. This is denoted as scene coverage
    • Accelerates the labelling by two orders of magnitude and make a finer-grained labelling of large models (e.g. of cities) practically feasible
    • Provides a new 3D dataset of densely labelled images
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Datasets & BenchmarksSynthetic Data
The SYNTHIA Dataset: A Large Collection of Synthetic Images for Semantic Segmentation of Urban Scenes [pdf] [slide]
German Ros and Laura Sellart and Joanna Materzynska and David Vazquez and Antonio Lopez
CVPR 2016
Ros2016CVPR

  • Proposes to use a virtual world to automatically generate realistic synthetic images with pixel-level semantic segmentation annotation
  • Contributions:
    • A new dataset SYNTHIA, for semantic segmentation of driving scenes with more than 213,400 syn- thetic images including both, random snapshots and video sequences in a virtual city
    • Images are generated simulating different seasons, weather and illumination conditions from multiple view-points
    • Experiments showed that SYNTHIA is good enough to produce good segmentations by itself on real datasets, dramatically boosting accuracy in combination with real data.
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
ISPRS Test Project on Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Franz Rottensteiner and Gunho Sohn and Markus Gerke and Jan Dirk Wegner
CVPR 2013
Rottensteiner2013

  • Benchmark for Urban Object Detection & 3D Building Reconstruction
  • Urban Object Detection - In this context, the task is to determine the outlines of objects in the input airborne images. Training data are available for a variety of object classes, including buildings, roads, trees, and cars
  • 3D Building Reconstruction: The task is to reconstruct detailed 3D roof structures for input test airborne images. Detailed 3D models of roofs are available as reference data
  • Exisiting datasets are outdated due to the fact that they are based on scanned aerial images acquired by analog cameras
  • Makes use of the full benefits of modern airborne data, including multiple-overlap geometry, increased radiometric and spectral resolution
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
Results of the ISPRS benchmark on urban object detection and 3D building reconstruction [pdf] [slide]
Franz Rottensteiner and Gunho Sohn and Markus Gerke and Jan Dirk Wegner and Uwe Breitkopf and Jaewook Jung
JPRS 2014
Rottensteiner2014JPRS

  • Extraction of urban objects from data acquired by airborne sensors
  • Evaluation of methods for building detection, tree detection and 3D building reconstruction
  • Considering ISPRS benchmark dataset, consisting of airborne image and laserscans
  • Comparison and analysis to identify promising strategies and common problems
  • Building detection can be satisfactorily solved for buildings larger than 50m^2
  • Tree detection successful in detecting large tress under favorable conditions
  • Production of geometrically and topologically correct LoD2 buildings models still poses challenges
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Hyperpoints and Fine Vocabularies for Large-Scale Location Recognition [pdf] [slide]
Torsten Sattler and Michal Havlena and Filip Radenovic and Konrad Schindler and Marc Pollefeys
ICCV 2015
Sattler2015ICCV

  • Large-scale structure-based localization
  • Problem: ineffective descriptor matching due to large memory footprint and the strictness of the ratio test in 3D
  • Previous approaches:
    • Smart compression of the 3D model
    • Clever sampling strategies for geometric verification
  • Implicit feature matching by quantization into a fine vocabulary
  • Using all the 3D points and standard sampling
  • Locally unique 2D-3D point assignment by a simple voting strategy to enforce the co-visibility of the selected 3D points
  • Evaluation on SF-0, Landmarks datasets
  • State-of-the-art performance with reduced memory footprint by storing only visual word labels
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Motion & Pose EstimationLocalization
Efficient Effective Prioritized Matching for Large-Scale Image-Based Localization [pdf] [slide]
T. Sattler and B. Leibe and L. Kobbelt
PAMI 2016
Sattler2016PAMI

  • Accurately determining the position and orientation from which an image was taken using SfM point clouds
  • Direct matching strategy comparing descriptors of the 2D query features and the 3D points in the model
  • Vocabulary-based prioritized matching step is able to consider features more likely to yield 2D-to-3D matches
  • Terminating the correspondence search as soon as enough matches have been found
  • Visibility information from reconstruction process used to improve the efficiency
  • Efficiently handling large-scale 3D models
  • Evaluation on Dubrovnik, Rome and Vienna dataset used as standard benchmark for image-based localization
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Motion & Pose EstimationEgo-Motion Estimation
Real-time monocular visual odometry for on-road vehicles with 1-point RANSAC [pdf] [slide]
Davide Scaramuzza and Friedrich Fraundorfer and Roland Siegwart
ICRA 2009
Scaramuzza2009ICRA

  • Presents a system capable of recovering the trajectory of a vehicle from the video input of a single camera at a very high frame-rate
  • Contributions:
    • The algorithm proposes a novel way of removing the outliers of the feature matching process
    • Show that by exploiting the nonholonomic constraints of wheeled vehicles it is possible to use a restrictive motion model
    • This allows to parameterize the motion with only 1 feature correspondence
  • Evaluates on real traffic sequencees in the city center of Zurich
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Cameras Models & CalibrationOmnidirectional Cameras
A Toolbox for Easily Calibrating Omnidirectional Cameras [pdf] [slide]
Davide Scaramuzza and Agostino Martinelli
IROS 2006
Scaramuzza2006IROS

  • Fast and automatic calibration of central omnidirectional cameras, both dioptric and catadioptric
  • Requiring a few images of a checker board, and clicking on its corner points
  • No need for specific model of the omnidirectional sensor
  • Imaging function by a Taylor series expansion whose coefficients are estimated by
    • solving a four-step least-squares linear minimization problem
    • a non-linear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion
  • Evaluation on both simulated and real data
  • Showing calibration accuracy by projecting the color information of a calibrated camera on real 3D points extracted by a 3D sick laser range finder
  • A Matlab toolbox
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Cameras Models & CalibrationOmnidirectional Cameras
Appearance-Guided Monocular Omnidirectional Visual Odometry for Outdoor Ground Vehicles [pdf] [slide]
Scaramuzza, D. and Siegwart, R.
TR 2008
Scaramuzza2008TR

  • Describes a real-time algorithm for computing the ego-motion of a vehicle relative to the road
  • Uses as input only those images provided by a single omnidirectional camera mounted on the roof of the vehicle
  • The front ends of the system are two different trackers:
    • The first one is a homography-based tracker that detects and matches robust scale-invariant features that most likely belong to the ground plane
    • The second one uses an appearance-based approach and gives high-resolution estimates of the rotation of the vehicle
  • Camera trajectory estimated from omnidirectional images over a distance of 400m. For performance evaluation, the estimated path is superimposed onto a satellite image
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Datasets & BenchmarksReal Data
A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms [pdf] [slide]
Scharstein, Daniel and Szeliski, Richard
IJCV 2002
Scharstein2002IJCV

  • Presents a taxonomy of dense, two-frame stereo methods designed to assess the different components of individual stereo algorithms
  • Uses this taxonomy to highlight the most important features of existing stereo algorithms and to study important algorithmic components in isolation
  • Provides a test bed for the qua