Stereo Evaluation 2012


The stereo / flow benchmark consists of 194 training image pairs and 195 test image pairs, saved in loss less png format. Our evaluation server computes the average number of bad pixels for all non-occluded or occluded (=all groundtruth) pixels. We require that all methods use the same parameter set for all test pairs. Our development kit provides details about the data format as well as MATLAB / C++ utility functions for reading and writing disparity maps and flow fields.

Our evaluation table ranks all methods according to the number of non-occluded erroneous pixels at the specified disparity / end-point error threshold. All methods providing less than 100 % density have been interpolated using simple background interpolation as explained in the corresponding header file in the development kit. For each method we show:

  • Out-Noc: Percentage of erroneous pixels in non-occluded areas
  • Out-All: Percentage of erroneous pixels in total
  • Avg-Noc: Average disparity / end-point error in non-occluded areas
  • Avg-All: Average disparity / end-point error in total
  • Density: Percentage of pixels for which ground truth has been provided by the method

Note: On 04.11.2013 we have improved the ground truth disparity maps and flow fields leading to slightly improvements for all methods. Please download the stereo/flow dataset with the improved ground truth for training again, if you have downloaded the dataset prior to 04.11.2013. Please consider reporting these new number for all future submissions. Links to last leaderboards before the updates: stereo and flow!

Important Policy Update: As more and more non-published work and re-implementations of existing work is submitted to KITTI, we have established a new policy: from now on, only submissions with significant novelty that are leading to a peer-reviewed paper in a conference or journal are allowed. Minor modifications of existing algorithms or student research projects are not allowed. Such work must be evaluated on a split of the training set. To ensure that our policy is adopted, new users must detail their status, describe their work and specify the targeted venue during registration. Furthermore, we will regularly delete all entries that are 6 months old but are still anonymous or do not have a paper associated with them. For conferences, 6 month is enough to determine if a paper has been accepted and to add the bibliography information. For longer review cycles, you need to resubmit your results.
Additional information used by the methods
  • Flow: Method uses optical flow (2 temporally adjacent images)
  • Multiview: Method uses more than 2 temporally adjacent images
  • Motion stereo: Method uses epipolar geometry for computing optical flow
  • Additional training data: Use of additional data sources for training (see details)

Table        Error threshold        Evaluation area

Method Setting Code Out-Noc Out-All Avg-Noc Avg-All Density Runtime Environment
1 NMRF-Stereo-SwinTiny code 0.92 % 1.20 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.11 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
2 ViTAStereo 0.93 % 1.16 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.22 s NVIDIA RTX 4090 (PyTorch)
C. Liu, Q. Chen and R. Fan: Playing to Vision Foundation Model's Strengths in Stereo Matching. arXiv preprint arXiv:2404.06261 2024.
3 GANet+ADL code 0.98 % 1.29 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.67 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
P. Xu, Z. Xiang, C. Qiao, J. Fu and T. Pu: Adaptive Multi-Modal Cross-Entropy Loss for Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024.
4 GSSNet 0.98 % 1.26 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.78 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
5 RiskMin 1.00 % 1.44 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.20 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
C. Liu, S. Kumar, S. Gu, R. Timofte, Y. Yao and L. Gool: Stereo Risk: A Continuous Modeling Approach to Stereo Matching. Forty-first International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2024) 2024.
6 StereoBase code 1.00 % 1.26 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.29 s GPU @ 1.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Guo, J. Lu, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Duan, T. Yang, Z. Zhu and L. Chen: OpenStereo: A Comprehensive Benchmark for Stereo Matching and Strong Baseline. arXiv preprint arXiv:2312.00343 2023.
7 NMRF-Stereo code 1.01 % 1.35 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.09 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
T. Guan, C. Wang and Y. Liu: Neural Markov Random Field for Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2024.
8 DN+ACVNet 1.02 % 1.41 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.24 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Bai, J. Zheng, L. Gu and E. Hancock: Exploring the Usage of Pre-trained Features for Stereo Matching. International Journal of Computer Vision 2024.
9 WiCRI_STEREO 1.03 % 1.34 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
10 MVACVNet 1.03 % 1.34 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.01 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
11 CGF-ACV code 1.03 % 1.34 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.24 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
12 Ms_Igev 1.03 % 1.33 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.5 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
13 PCWNet-SCE 1.03 % 1.35 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.44 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
14 LargeStereo 1.04 % 1.36 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.2 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
15 MC-Stereo code 1.04 % 1.34 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.40 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
M. Feng, J. Cheng, H. Jia, L. Liu, G. Xu and X. Yang: MC-Stereo: Multi-peak Lookup and Cascade Search Range for Stereo Matching. International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV) 2024.
16 PCWNet code 1.04 % 1.37 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.44 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Shen, Y. Dai, X. Song, Z. Rao, D. Zhou and L. Zhang: PCW-Net: Pyramid Combination and Warping Cost Volume for Stereo Matching. European Conference on Computer Vision(ECCV) 2022.
17 LaC+GANet code 1.05 % 1.42 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 1.8 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
B. Liu, H. Yu and Y. Long: Local Similarity Pattern and Cost Self- Reassembling for Deep Stereo Matching Networks. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2022.
18 UGNet 1.05 % 1.42 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.3 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
19 MoCha-V2 code 1.05 % 1.35 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.25 s NVIDIA Tesla A100 (Python)
20 IGEV-dynamic 1.06 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.2 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
21 ICVP code 1.06 % 1.39 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.17 s GPU @ 1.5 Ghz (Python)
O. Kwon and E. Zell: Image-Coupled Volume Propagation for Stereo Matching. 2023 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2023.
22 VFM Adapter 1.06 % 1.32 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 1 s 8 cores @ 3.5 Ghz (Python)
23 MoCha-Stereo code 1.06 % 1.36 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.33 s NVIDIA Tesla A6000 (PyTorch)
Z. Chen, W. Long, H. Yao, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Qin and J. Wu: MoCha-Stereo: Motif Channel Attention Network for Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024.
24 Sn-stereo 1.07 % 1.38 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.35 s GPU @ 1.5 Ghz (Python)
25 DMIO 1.07 % 1.38 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Y. Shi: Rethinking Iterative Stereo Matching from Diffusion Bridge Model Perspective. arXiv preprint arXiv:2404.09051 2024.
26 Selective-IGEV code 1.07 % 1.38 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.24 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Wang, G. Xu, H. Jia and X. Yang: Selective-Stereo: Adaptive Frequency Information Selection for Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024.
27 IGEVStereo-DCA 1.07 % 1.42 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.4 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
28 GeoNet 1.08 % 1.42 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.22 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
29 SR Stereo 1.09 % 1.36 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.18 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
30 EGLCR-Stereo 1.09 % 1.40 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.45 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
31 MDA 1.09 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.32s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
32 HCR 1.09 % 1.42 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.19 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Y. Tuming Yuan: Hourglass cascaded recurrent stereo matching network. Image and Vision computing 2024.
33 UCFNet code 1.09 % 1.45 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.21 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Shen, X. Song, Y. Dai, D. Zhou, Z. Rao and L. Zhang: Digging Into Uncertainty-Based Pseudo- Label for Robust Stereo Matching. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 2023.
34 DVANet 1.09 % 1.52 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.28 s NVIDIA 3090 (PyTorch)
35 LoS 1.10 % 1.38 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.19 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
K. Li, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Xue, S. Zhou and Y. Guo: LoS: Local Structure Guided Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024.
36 ACVNet-DCA 1.10 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.2 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
37 Selective-RAFT code 1.10 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.45 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Wang, G. Xu, H. Jia and X. Yang: Selective-Stereo: Adaptive Frequency Information Selection for Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024.
38 IGEV-ICGNet 1.10 % 1.41 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.18 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
39 HART 1.11 % 1.38 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.34 s NVIDIA Tesla A100 (Python)
40 Any-IGEV 1.11 % 1.41 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.32 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
41 NLCA-Net v2 code 1.11 % 1.46 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.67 s GPU @ >3.5 Ghz (Python)
Z. Rao, D. Yuchao, S. Zhelun and H. Renjie: Rethinking Training Strategy in Stereo Matching. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS AND LEARNING SYSTEMS .
42 MAStereo 1.11 % 1.40 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.06 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
43 IGEV-Stereo(32) code 1.12 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.32 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
G. Xu, X. Wang, X. Ding and X. Yang: Iterative Geometry Encoding Volume for Stereo Matching. CVPR 2023.
44 ICGNet-abl 1.12 % 1.41 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.18s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
45 IGEV-Stereo 1.12 % 1.44 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.18 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
G. Xu, X. Wang, X. Ding and X. Yang: Iterative Geometry Encoding Volume for Stereo Matching. CVPR 2023.
46 MAStereo 1.13 % 1.40 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.07 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
47 LaC+GwcNet code 1.13 % 1.49 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.65 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
B. Liu, H. Yu and Y. Long: Local Similarity Pattern and Cost Self- Reassembling for Deep Stereo Matching Networks. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2022.
48 MR_Igev 1.13 % 1.43 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.5 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
49 ACVNet code 1.13 % 1.47 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.2 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
G. Xu, J. Cheng, P. Guo and X. Yang: Attention Concatenation Volume for Accurate and Efficient Stereo Matching. CVPR 2022.
50 LEAStereo code 1.13 % 1.45 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.3 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Cheng, Y. Zhong, M. Harandi, Y. Dai, X. Chang, H. Li, T. Drummond and Z. Ge: Hierarchical Neural Architecture Search for Deep Stereo Matching. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2020.
51 CREStereo code 1.14 % 1.46 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.40 s GPU @ >3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Li, P. Wang, P. Xiong, T. Cai, Z. Yan, L. Yang, J. Liu, H. Fan and S. Liu: Practical Stereo Matching via Cascaded Recurrent Network with Adaptive Correlation. 2022.
52 ADBM 1.14 % 1.48 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.4 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
53 DANet-Stereo 1.15 % 1.52 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 2.7 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
54 Fine-stereo 1.16 % 1.47 % 0.4 px 0.4 px 100.00 % 0.32 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
55 EGA-Stereo code 1.17 % 1.55 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.41 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
56 FGDS-Net 1.17 % 1.51 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
57 AcfNet code 1.17 % 1.54 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.48 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Bai, S. Yu, K. Yu, Z. Li and K. Yang: Adaptive Unimodal Cost Volume Filtering for Deep Stereo Matching. AAAI 2020.
58 DualNet* 1.17 % 1.57 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
59 4D-IteraStereo 1.17 % 1.55 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.4 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
60 GINet 1.17 % 1.56 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.25 s 2 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
61 Abc-Net 1.18 % 1.59 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.72 s 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Li, Y. Fan, G. Lv and H. Ma: Area-based correlation and non-local attention network for stereo matching. The Visual Computer 2021.
62 Any-RAFT 1.18 % 1.52 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.32 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
63 CAL-Net 1.19 % 1.53 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.44 s 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
S. Chen, B. Li, W. Wang, H. Zhang, H. Li and Z. Wang: Cost Affinity Learning Network for Stereo Matching. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2021, Toronto, ON, Canada, June 6-11, 2021 2021.
64 GANet-deep code 1.19 % 1.60 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 1.8 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
F. Zhang, V. Prisacariu, R. Yang and P. Torr: GA-Net: Guided Aggregation Net for End-to-end Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2019.
65 PCMAnet 1.20 % 1.63 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.27 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
66 OptStereo 1.20 % 1.61 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.10 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
H. Wang, R. Fan, P. Cai and M. Liu: PVStereo: Pyramid voting module for end-to-end self-supervised stereo matching. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2021.
67 NLCA-Net-3 code 1.21 % 1.60 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.44 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Z. Rao, M. He, Y. Dai, Z. Zhu, B. Li and R. He: NLCA-Net: a non-local context attention network for stereo matching. APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing 2020.
68 CFNet code 1.23 % 1.58 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.18 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Z. Shen, Y. Dai and Z. Rao: CFNet: Cascade and Fused Cost Volume for Robust Stereo Matching. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2021.
Z. Shen, X. Song, Y. Dai, D. Zhou, Z. Rao and L. Zhang: Digging Into Uncertainty-Based Pseudo- Label for Robust Stereo Matching. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 2023.
69 PFSMNet code 1.23 % 1.58 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.31 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Zeng, Y. Wang, Q. Zhu, J. Mao and H. Zhang: Deep Progressive Fusion Stereo Network. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2021.
70 DispNO 1.24 % 1.58 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.73 s GPU @ 3.0 Ghz (Python)
71 NLCA-Net code 1.25 % 1.62 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.6 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Rao, M. He, Y. Dai, Z. Zhu, B. Li and R. He: NLCA-Net: a non-local context attention network for stereo matching. APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing 2020.
72 ICGNet-gwc 1.25 % 1.63 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.32 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
73 MPFV-Stereo 1.26 % 1.62 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.31 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
74 SCV-Stereo code 1.27 % 1.68 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.08 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
H. Wang, R. Fan and M. Liu: SCV-Stereo: Learning stereo matching from a sparse cost volume. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2021.
75 RT-IGEV 1.29 % 1.68 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.05 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
76 NeXt-Stereo 1.30 % 1.65 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.06 s GPU @ 2.0 Ghz (Python)
77 TBFE-Net 1.30 % 1.70 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
78 DCVSMNet code 1.30 % 1.67 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.07 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
M. Tahmasebi, S. Huq, K. Meehan and M. McAfee: DCVSMNet: Double Cost Volume Stereo Matching Network. 2024.
79 DPCTF-S 1.31 % 1.72 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.11 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Y. Deng, J. Xiao, S. Zhou and J. Feng: Detail Preserving Coarse-to-Fine Matching for Stereo Matching and Optical Flow. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2021.
80 AMNet 1.32 % 1.73 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.9 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Du, M. El-Khamy and J. Lee: AMNet: Deep Atrous Multiscale Stereo Disparity Estimation Networks. 2019.
81 GwcNet-gc code 1.32 % 1.70 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.32 s GPU @ 2.0 Ghz (Java + C/C++)
X. Guo, K. Yang, W. Yang, X. Wang and H. Li: Group-wise correlation stereo network. CVPR 2019.
82 ProNet 1.32 % 1.73 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.33 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
83 PGNet 1.32 % 1.79 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.7 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (python)
S. Chen, Z. Xiang, C. Qiao, Y. Chen and T. Bai: PGNet: Panoptic parsing guided deep stereo matching. Neurocomputing 2021.
84 LightStereo-L* 1.34 % 1.62 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.05 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Guo, C. Zhang, D. Nie, W. Zheng, Y. Zhang and L. Chen: LightStereo: Channel Boost Is All Your Need for Efficient 2D Cost Aggregation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2406.19833 2024.
85 MAF-Stereo code 1.35 % 1.70 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.07 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
86 FusionStereo 1.36 % 1.77 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 16 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
87 GANet-15 code 1.36 % 1.80 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.36 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
F. Zhang, V. Prisacariu, R. Yang and P. Torr: GA-Net: Guided Aggregation Net for End-to-end Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2019.
88 SGNet 1.38 % 1.85 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.6 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python + C/C++)
S. Chen, Z. Xiang, C. Qiao, Y. Chen and T. Bai: SGNet: Semantics Guided Deep Stereo Matching. Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV) 2020.
89 GEMAStereo 1.38 % 1.74 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.03 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
90 HD^3-Stereo code 1.40 % 1.80 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.14 s NVIDIA Pascal Titan XP
Z. Yin, T. Darrell and F. Yu: Hierarchical Discrete Distribution Decomposition for Match Density Estimation. CVPR 2019.
91 HITNet code 1.41 % 1.89 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.02 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python + C/C++)
V. Tankovich, C. Häne, Y. Zhang, A. Kowdle, S. Fanello and S. Bouaziz: HITNet: Hierarchical Iterative Tile Refinement Network for Real-time Stereo Matching. CVPR 2021.
92 OnestageStereo 1.41 % 1.80 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 1 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
93 CFP-Net code 1.41 % 1.83 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.95 s 8 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Z. Zhu, M. He, Y. Dai, Z. Rao and B. Li: Multi-scale Cross-form Pyramid Network for Stereo Matching. arXiv preprint 2019.
94 WSMCnet code 1.42 % 1.90 % 0.6 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.39 s GPU @ Nvidia GTX 1070 (Pytorch)
Y. Wang, H. Wang, G. Yu, M. Yang, Y. Yuan and J. Quan: Stereo Matching Algorithm Based on Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network. Acta Optica Sinica 2019.
95 UAIStereo 1.45 % 1.81 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.06 s GPU @ 3.5 Ghz (Python)
96 EdgeStereo-V2 1.46 % 1.83 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.32 s Nvidia GTX Titan Xp
X. Song, X. Zhao, L. Fang, H. Hu and Y. Yu: Edgestereo: An effective multi-task learning network for stereo matching and edge detection. International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV) 2019.
97 MABNet_origin code 1.47 % 1.89 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.38 s Nvidia rtx2080ti (Python)
J. Xing, Z. Qi, J. Dong, J. Cai and H. Liu: MABNet: A Lightweight Stereo Network Based on Multibranch Adjustable Bottleneck Module. .
98 SSPCVNet 1.47 % 1.90 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.9 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Z. Wu, X. Wu, X. Zhang, S. Wang and L. Ju: Semantic Stereo Matching With Pyramid Cost Volumes. The IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2019.
99 PSMNet code 1.49 % 1.89 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.41 s Nvidia Titan Xp
J. Chang and Y. Chen: Pyramid Stereo Matching Network. arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.08669 2018.
100 CAS++ 1.52 % 1.87 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % .1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
101 ff-stereo 1.52 % 1.87 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.15 s GPU @ 3.0 Ghz (Python)
102 HSM code 1.53 % 1.99 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.15 s Titan X Pascal
G. Yang, J. Manela, M. Happold and D. Ramanan: Hierarchical Deep Stereo Matching on High- Resolution Images. The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2019.
103 MCVFNet 1.54 % 2.00 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.029 s RTX 2080TI
104 LightStereo-L code 1.55 % 1.87 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.03 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Guo, C. Zhang, D. Nie, W. Zheng, Y. Zhang and L. Chen: LightStereo: Channel Boost Is All Your Need for Efficient 2D Cost Aggregation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2406.19833 2024.
105 AANet+ code 1.55 % 2.04 % 0.4 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.06 s NVIDIA V100 GPU
H. Xu and J. Zhang: AANet: Adaptive Aggregation Network for Efficient Stereo Matching. CVPR 2020.
106 CoEx code 1.55 % 1.93 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.027 s RTX 2080Ti (Python)
A. Bangunharcana, J. Cho, S. Lee, I. Kweon, K. Kim and S. Kim: Correlate-and-Excite: Real-Time Stereo Matching via Guided Cost Volume Excitation. 2021 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) 2021.
107 LightStereo-M code 1.56 % 1.91 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.02 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Guo, C. Zhang, D. Nie, W. Zheng, Y. Zhang and L. Chen: LightStereo: Channel Boost Is All Your Need for Efficient 2D Cost Aggregation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2406.19833 2024.
108 BGNet+ 1.62 % 2.03 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.02 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
B. Xu, Y. Xu, X. Yang, W. Jia and Y. Guo: Bilateral Grid Learning for Stereo Matching Network. Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2021.
109 MSDC-Net 1.63 % 2.09 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.6 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Rao, M. He, Y. Dai, Z. Zhu, B. Li and R. He: MSDC-Net: Multi-Scale Dense and Contextual Networks for Stereo Matching. 2019 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC) 2019.
110 WaveletStereo 1.66 % 2.18 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.27 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Anonymous: WaveletStereo: Learning wavelet coefficients for stereo matching. arXiv: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2019.
111 SegStereo code 1.68 % 2.03 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.6 s Nvidia GTX Titan Xp
G. Yang, H. Zhao, J. Shi, Z. Deng and J. Jia: SegStereo: Exploiting Semantic Information for Disparity Estimation. ECCV 2018.
112 AutoDispNet-CSS code 1.70 % 2.05 % 0.5 px 0.5 px 100.00 % 0.9 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
T. Saikia, Y. Marrakchi, A. Zela, F. Hutter and T. Brox: AutoDispNet: Improving Disparity Estimation with AutoML. The IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2019.
113 iResNet-i2 code 1.71 % 2.16 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.12 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Liang, Y. Feng, Y. Guo, H. Liu, W. Chen, L. Qiao, L. Zhou and J. Zhang: Learning for disparity estimation through feature constancy. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2018.
114 DFGA-Net 1.74 % 2.18 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.09 s NVIDIA RTX 3090 (PyTorch)
115 GC-NET 1.77 % 2.30 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 0.9 s Nvidia GTX Titan X
A. Kendall, H. Martirosyan, S. Dasgupta, P. Henry, R. Kennedy, A. Bachrach and A. Bry: End-to-End Learning of Geometry and Context for Deep Stereo Regression. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2017.
116 ERSCNet 1.80 % 2.30 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.28 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
Anonymous: ERSCNet. Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2020.
117 LI-ACVNet 1.82 % 2.27 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 0.14 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
118 LightStereo-S code 1.88 % 2.34 % 0.6 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.01 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Guo, C. Zhang, D. Nie, W. Zheng, Y. Zhang and L. Chen: LightStereo: Channel Boost Is All Your Need for Efficient 2D Cost Aggregation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2406.19833 2024.
119 AANet code 1.91 % 2.42 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.06 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
H. Xu and J. Zhang: AANet: Adaptive Aggregation Network for Efficient Stereo Matching. CVPR 2020.
120 PDSNet 1.92 % 2.53 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.5 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python + C/C++)
S. Tulyakov, A. Ivanov and F. Fleuret: Practical Deep Stereo (PDS): Toward applications-friendly deep stereo matching. Proceedings of the international conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 2018.
121 PVStereo 1.98 % 2.47 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.10 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
H. Wang, R. Fan, P. Cai and M. Liu: PVStereo: Pyramid voting module for end-to-end self-supervised stereo matching. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2021.
122 CKDNet_1.0 2.00 % 2.50 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
123 CKDNet_0.5 2.01 % 2.63 % 0.6 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
124 FADNet code 2.04 % 2.46 % 0.5 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.05 s Tesla V100 (Python)
Q. Wang, S. Shi, S. Zheng, K. Zhao and X. Chu: FADNet: A Fast and Accurate Network for Disparity Estimation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.10758 2020.
125 MMStereo 2.04 % 2.52 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 0.04 s Nvidia Titan RTX (Python)
K. Shankar, M. Tjersland, J. Ma, K. Stone and M. Bajracharya: A Learned Stereo Depth System for Robotic Manipulation in Homes. .
126 DualNet 2.06 % 2.59 % 0.6 px 0.6 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
127 CKDNet_0.3 2.15 % 2.76 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
128 RecResNet code 2.21 % 2.94 % 0.6 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 0.3 s GPU @ NVIDIA TITAN X (Tensorflow)
K. Batsos and P. Mordohai: RecResNet: A Recurrent Residual CNN Architecture for Disparity Map Enhancement. In International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV) 2018.
129 L-ResMatch code 2.27 % 3.40 % 0.7 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 48 s Titan X (Torch7, CUDA)
A. Shaked and L. Wolf: Improved Stereo Matching with Constant Highway Networks and Reflective Loss. arXiv preprint arxiv:1701.00165 2016.
130 CNNF+SGM 2.28 % 3.48 % 0.7 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 71 s TESLA K40C
F. Zhang and B. Wah: Fundamental Principles on Learning New Features for Effective Dense Matching. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2018.
131 SGM-Net 2.29 % 3.50 % 0.7 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 67 s Titan X
A. Seki and M. Pollefeys: SGM-Nets: Semi-Global Matching With Neural Networks. CVPR 2017.
132 SsSMnet 2.30 % 3.00 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.8 s Titan Xp
Y. Zhong, Y. Dai and H. Li: Self-Supervised Learning for Stereo Matching with Self-Improving Ability. arXiv:1709.00930 2017.
133 PBCP 2.36 % 3.45 % 0.7 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 68 s Nvidia GTX Titan X
A. Seki and M. Pollefeys: Patch Based Confidence Prediction for Dense Disparity Map. British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC) 2016.
134 Displets v2 code 2.37 % 3.09 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 265 s >8 cores @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
F. Guney and A. Geiger: Displets: Resolving Stereo Ambiguities using Object Knowledge. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2015.
135 RTSnet code 2.43 % 2.90 % 0.7 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 0.02 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
H. Lee and Y. Shin: Real-Time Stereo Matching Network with High Accuracy. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2019.
136 MC-CNN-acrt code 2.43 % 3.63 % 0.7 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 67 s Nvidia GTX Titan X (CUDA, Lua/Torch7)
J. Zbontar and Y. LeCun: Stereo Matching by Training a Convolutional Neural Network to Compare Image Patches. Submitted to JMLR .
137 cfusion
This method makes use of multiple (>2) views.
code 2.46 % 2.69 % 0.8 px 0.8 px 99.93 % 70 s GPU (Matlab + CUDA)
V. Ntouskos and F. Pirri: Confidence driven TGV fusion. arXiv preprint arXiv:1603.09302 2016.
138 Displets code 2.47 % 3.27 % 0.7 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 265 s >8 cores @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
F. Guney and A. Geiger: Displets: Resolving Stereo Ambiguities using Object Knowledge. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2015.
139 MC-CNN 2.61 % 3.84 % 0.8 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 100 s Nvidia GTX Titan (CUDA, Lua/Torch7)
J. Zbontar and Y. LeCun: Computing the Stereo Matching Cost with a Convolutional Neural Network. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2015.
140 Fast DS-CS code 2.61 % 3.20 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.02 s GPU @ 2.0 Ghz (Python + C/C++)
K. Yee and A. Chakrabarti: Fast Deep Stereo with 2D Convolutional Processing of Cost Signatures. WACV 2020 (to appear).
141 MABNet_tiny code 2.71 % 3.31 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.11 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
J. Xing, Z. Qi, J. Dong, J. Cai and H. Liu: MABNet: A Lightweight Stereo Network Based on Multibranch Adjustable Bottleneck Module. .
142 PRSM
This method uses optical flow information.
This method makes use of multiple (>2) views.
code 2.78 % 3.00 % 0.7 px 0.7 px 100.00 % 300 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
C. Vogel, K. Schindler and S. Roth: 3D Scene Flow Estimation with a Piecewise Rigid Scene Model. ijcv 2015.
143 DualNet (step 1) 2.82 % 3.45 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
144 SPS-StFl
This method uses optical flow information.
This method makes use of the epipolar geometry.
2.83 % 3.64 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 35 s 1 core @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Yamaguchi, D. McAllester and R. Urtasun: Efficient Joint Segmentation, Occlusion Labeling, Stereo and Flow Estimation. ECCV 2014.
145 SMFormer 2.97 % 3.57 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.36 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
146 MC-CNN-WS code 3.02 % 4.45 % 0.8 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 1.35 s 1 core 2.5 Ghz + K40 NVIDIA, Lua-Torch
S. Tulyakov, A. Ivanov and F. Fleuret: Weakly supervised learning of deep metrics for stereo reconstruction. ICCV 2017.
147 VC-SF
This method uses optical flow information.
This method makes use of multiple (>2) views.
3.05 % 3.31 % 0.8 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 300 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
C. Vogel, S. Roth and K. Schindler: View-Consistent 3D Scene Flow Estimation over Multiple Frames. Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision. Lecture Notes in, Computer Science 2014.
148 Content-CNN 3.07 % 4.29 % 0.8 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.7 s Nvidia GTX Titan X (Torch)
W. Luo, A. Schwing and R. Urtasun: Efficient Deep Learning for Stereo Matching. CVPR 2016.
149 Deep Embed 3.10 % 4.24 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Chen, X. Sun, Y. Yu, L. Wang and C. Huang: A Deep Visual Correspondence Embedding Model for Stereo Matching Costs. ICCV 2015.
150 SAFT-Stereo 3.12 % 3.64 % 0.8 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.007 s NVIDIA GeForce RTX 4090
151 JSOSM 3.15 % 3.94 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 105 s 8 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
X. Li and J. Liu: EFFICIENT STEREO MATCHING USING SEGMENT OPTIMIZATION. ICIP 2016.
152 FD-Fusion code 3.16 % 3.85 % 0.7 px 0.8 px 100.00 % 0.01 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
M. Ferrera, A. Boulch and J. Moras: Fast Stereo Disparity Maps Refinement By Fusion of Data-Based And Model-Based Estimations. International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV) 2019.
153 OSF
This method uses optical flow information.
code 3.28 % 4.07 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 99.98 % 50 min 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
M. Menze and A. Geiger: Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2015.
154 CoR code 3.30 % 4.10 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 6 s 6 cores @ 3.3 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
A. Chakrabarti, Y. Xiong, S. Gortler and T. Zickler: Low-level Vision by Consensus in a Spatial Hierarchy of Regions. CVPR 2015.
155 TCD-CRF 3.32 % 5.24 % 0.9 px 1.9 px 100.00 % 60 s 4 cores @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
S. Arjomand Bigdeli, G. Budweiser and M. Zwicker: Temporally Coherent Disparity Maps Using CRFs with Fast 4D Filtering. Proc. ACPR 2015.
156 SPS-St code 3.39 % 4.41 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 2 s 1 core @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Yamaguchi, D. McAllester and R. Urtasun: Efficient Joint Segmentation, Occlusion Labeling, Stereo and Flow Estimation. ECCV 2014.
157 PCBP-SS 3.40 % 4.72 % 0.8 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 5 min 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
K. Yamaguchi, D. McAllester and R. Urtasun: Robust Monocular Epipolar Flow Estimation. CVPR 2013.
158 yjlig 3.55 % 4.42 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 0.35 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
159 P3SNet+ code 3.55 % 4.42 % 0.8 px 0.9 px 100.00 % 0.01 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
A. Emlek and M. Peker: P3SNet: Parallel Pyramid Pooling Stereo Network. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2023.
160 CBMV code 3.56 % 4.73 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 250 s 6 cores@3.0Ghz(Python,C/C++,CUDA TitanX)
K. Batsos, C. Cai and P. Mordohai: CBMV: A Coalesced Bidirectional Matching Volume for Disparity Estimation. 2018.
161 P3SNet code 3.65 % 4.46 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.01 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
A. Emlek and M. Peker: P3SNet: Parallel Pyramid Pooling Stereo Network. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2023.
162 DDS-SS 3.83 % 4.59 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 1 min 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
D. Wei, C. Liu and W. Freeman: A Data-driven Regularization Model for Stereo and Flow. 3DTV-Conference, 2014 International Conference on 2014.
163 StereoSLIC 3.92 % 5.11 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 99.89 % 2.3 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Yamaguchi, D. McAllester and R. Urtasun: Robust Monocular Epipolar Flow Estimation. CVPR 2013.
164 SMCM 3.94 % 5.24 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 1800 s Nvidia GTX 1080 (Caffe)
M. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Cai and Z. You: Stereo matching based on classification of materials. Neurocomputing 2016.
165 PR-Sf+E
This method uses optical flow information.
4.02 % 4.87 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 200 s 4 cores @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
C. Vogel, K. Schindler and S. Roth: Piecewise Rigid Scene Flow. International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2013.
166 PCBP 4.04 % 5.37 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 5 min 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
K. Yamaguchi, T. Hazan, D. McAllester and R. Urtasun: Continuous Markov Random Fields for Robust Stereo Estimation. ECCV 2012.
167 DispNetC code 4.11 % 4.65 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.06 s Nvidia GTX Titan X (Caffe)
N. Mayer, E. Ilg, P. Häusser, P. Fischer, D. Cremers, A. Dosovitskiy and T. Brox: A Large Dataset to Train Convolutional Networks for Disparity, Optical Flow, and Scene Flow Estimation. CVPR 2016.
168 CSPMS 4.13 % 5.92 % 1.2 px 1.6 px 100.00 % 6 s 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Cho and M. Humenberger: Fast PatchMatch Stereo Matching Using Multi-Scale Cost Fusion for Automotive Applications. IV 2015.
169 SSMNet 4.14 % 4.80 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.01 s GPU @ 2.0 Ghz (Python)
170 SGM-post 4.27 % 5.33 % 1.0 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 5 s 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Zhong: Efficient Learning based Semi-Global Stereo Matching. 2015 submitted.
171 MBM 4.35 % 5.43 % 1.0 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 0.2 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
N. Einecke and J. Eggert: A Multi-Block-Matching Approach for Stereo. IV 2015.
172 PR-Sceneflow
This method uses optical flow information.
4.36 % 5.22 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 150 sec 4 core @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab - C/C++)
C. Vogel, K. Schindler and S. Roth: Piecewise Rigid Scene Flow. International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2013.
173 CRD-Fusion code 4.38 % 5.40 % 0.9 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 0.02 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
X. Fan, S. Jeon and B. Fidan: Occlusion-Aware Self-Supervised Stereo Matching with Confidence Guided Raw Disparity Fusion. Conference on Robots and Vision 2022.
174 CoR-Conf code 4.49 % 5.26 % 1.0 px 1.2 px 96.37 % 6 s 6 cores @ 3.3 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
A. Chakrabarti, Y. Xiong, S. Gortler and T. Zickler: Low-level Vision by Consensus in a Spatial Hierarchy of Regions. CVPR 2015.
175 Flow2Stereo 4.58 % 5.11 % 1.0 px 1.1 px 100.00 % 0.05 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
P. Liu, I. King, M. Lyu and J. Xu: Flow2Stereo: Effective Self-Supervised Learning of Optical Flow and Stereo Matching. CVPR 2020.
176 DispSegNet 4.68 % 5.66 % 0.9 px 1.0 px 100.00 % 0.9 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
J. Zhang, K. Skinner, R. Vasudevan and M. Johnson-Roberson: DispSegNet: Leveraging Semantics for End- to-End Learning of Disparity Estimation From Stereo Imagery. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2019.
177 pSGM 4.68 % 6.13 % 1.0 px 1.4 px 100.00 % 7.92 s 4 cores @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Y. Lee, M. Park, Y. Hwang, Y. Shin and C. Kyung: Memory-Efficient Parametric Semiglobal Matching. IEEE Signal Processing Letters 2018.
178 AARBM 4.86 % 5.94 % 1.0 px 1.2 px 100.00 % 0.25 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
N. Einecke and J. Eggert: Block-Matching Stereo with Relaxed Fronto-Parallel Assumption. IV 2014.
179 wSGM 4.97 % 6.18 % 1.3 px 1.6 px 97.03 % 6s 1 core @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
R. Spangenberg, T. Langner and R. Rojas: Weighted Semi-Global Matching and Center-Symmetric Census Transform for Robust Driver Assistance. CAIP 2013.
180 AABM 4.97 % 6.04 % 1.0 px 1.2 px 100.00 % 0.12 s 1 core @ 3.1 Ghz (C/C++)
N. Einecke and J. Eggert: Stereo Image Warping for Improved Depth Estimation of Road Surfaces. IV 2013.
181 ATGV 5.02 % 6.88 % 1.0 px 1.6 px 100.00 % 6 min >8 cores @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
R. Ranftl, T. Pock and H. Bischof: Minimizing TGV-based Variational Models with Non-Convex Data terms. ICSSVM 2013.
182 rSGM code 5.03 % 6.60 % 1.1 px 1.5 px 97.22 % 0.2 s 4 cores @ 2.6 Ghz (C/C++)
R. Spangenberg, T. Langner, S. Adfeldt and R. Rojas: Large Scale Semi-Global Matching on the CPU. IV 2014.
183 iSGM 5.11 % 7.15 % 1.2 px 2.1 px 94.70 % 8 s 2 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
S. Hermann and R. Klette: Iterative Semi-Global Matching for Robust Driver Assistance Systems. ACCV 2012.
184 RBM 5.18 % 6.21 % 1.1 px 1.3 px 100.00 % 0.2 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
N. Einecke and J. Eggert: Block-Matching Stereo with Relaxed Fronto-Parallel Assumption. IV 2014.
185 ARW code 5.20 % 6.87 % 1.2 px 1.5 px 99.33 % 4.6s 1 core @ 3.5 Ghz (MATLAB+C/C++)
S. Lee, J. Lee, J. Lim and I. Suh: Robust Stereo Matching using Adaptive Random Walk with Restart Algorithm. Image and vision computing (accepted) 2015.
186 DLP 5.28 % 7.21 % 1.2 px 2.0 px 100.00 % 60 s 8 cores @ >3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
V. Nguyen, H. Nguyen and J. Jeon: Robust Stereo Data Cost With a Learning Strategy. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 2017.
187 Ensemble 5.34 % 6.91 % 1.5 px 2.0 px 100.00 % 135 s 2 cores @ >3.5 Ghz (Matlab)
A. Spyropoulos and P. Mordohai: Ensemble Classifier for Combining Stereo Matching Algorithms. International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV) 2015.
188 ALTGV 5.36 % 6.49 % 1.1 px 1.2 px 100.00 % 20 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
G. Kuschk and D. Cremers: Fast and Accurate Large-scale Stereo Reconstruction using Variational Methods. ICCV Workshop on Big Data in 3D Computer Vision 2013.
189 SNCC 5.40 % 6.44 % 1.2 px 1.3 px 100.00 % 0.11 s 1 core @ 3.1 Ghz (C/C++)
N. Einecke and J. Eggert: A Two-Stage Correlation Method for Stereoscopic Depth Estimation. DICTA 2010.
190 CAT 5.45 % 6.54 % 1.1 px 1.2 px 100.00 % 10 s 1 core @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Ha, J. Jeon, G. Bae, S. Jo and H. Jeong: Cost Aggregation Table: Cost Aggregation Method Using Summed Area Table Scheme for Dense Stereo Correspondence. Advances in Visual Computing 2014.
191 SACA 5.60 % 7.86 % 1.3 px 2.3 px 100.00 % 5 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
192 SGM 5.76 % 7.00 % 1.2 px 1.3 px 85.80 % 3.7 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
H. Hirschmueller: Stereo Processing by Semi-Global Matching and Mutual Information. PAMI 2008.
193 mSGM-LDE 6.01 % 8.22 % 1.4 px 2.4 px 100.00 % 55 s 2 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
V. Nguyen, D. Nguyen, S. Lee and J. Jeon: Local Density Encoding for Robust Stereo Matching. TCSVT 2014.
194 UHP 6.05 % 7.09 % 1.2 px 1.3 px 100.00 % 0.02 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
R. Yang, X. Li, R. Cong and J. Du: Unsupervised Hierarchical Iterative Tile Refinement Network with 3D Planar Segmentation Loss. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2024.
195 AAFS 6.10 % 6.94 % 1.2 px 1.3 px 100.00 % 0.01 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Chang, P. Chang and Y. Chen: Attention-Aware Feature Aggregation for Real-time Stereo Matching on Edge Devices. Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Computer Vision 2020.
196 Toast2
This method uses stereo information.
6.16 % 7.42 % 1.2 px 1.4 px 95.39 % 0.03 s 4 cores @ 3.5 Ghz (C/C++)
B. Ranft and T. Strau\ss: Modeling Arbitrarily Oriented Slanted Planes for Efficient Stereo Vision based on Block Matching. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on 2014.
197 ITGV 6.20 % 7.30 % 1.3 px 1.5 px 100.00 % 7 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
R. Ranftl, S. Gehrig, T. Pock and H. Bischof: Pushing the Limits of Stereo Using Variational Stereo Estimation. IV 2012.
198 OASM-Net 6.39 % 8.60 % 1.3 px 2.0 px 100.00 % 0.73 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Python)
A. Li and Z. Yuan: Occlusion Aware Stereo Matching via Cooperative Unsupervised Learning. Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2018.
199 Permutation Stereo 7.39 % 8.48 % 1.6 px 1.8 px 99.93 % 30 s GPU @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab)
P. Brousseau and S. Roy: A Permutation Model for the Self- Supervised Stereo Matching Problem. 2022 19th Conference on Robots and Vision (CRV) 2022.
200 OCV-SGBM code 7.64 % 9.13 % 1.8 px 2.0 px 86.50 % 1.1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
H. Hirschmueller: Stereo processing by semiglobal matching and mutual information. PAMI 2008.
201 SSMW 7.83 % 8.95 % 1.6 px 1.8 px 99.99 % 2.5 min 8 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
X. Li, J. Liu, G. Chen and H. Fu: Efficient Methods Using Slanted Support Windows for Slanted Surfaces. IET Computer Vision, http://ietdl.org/t/5QsTxb 2016.
202 MSMW
This method uses stereo information.
code 8.01 % 9.24 % 1.6 px 1.7 px 72.39 % 3 min 4 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
A. Buades and G. Facciolo: On the performance of local methods for stereovision. 2013 submitted.
203 HSMA 8.15 % 10.33 % 1.9 px 2.9 px 100.00 % 44s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
O. Zeglazi, M. Rziza, A. Amine and C. Demonceaux: A hierarchical stereo matching algorithm based on adaptive support region aggregation method. Pattern Recognition Letters 2018.
204 ELAS code 8.24 % 9.96 % 1.4 px 1.6 px 94.55 % 0.3 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
A. Geiger, M. Roser and R. Urtasun: Efficient Large-Scale Stereo Matching. ACCV 2010.
205 linBP 8.56 % 10.70 % 1.7 px 2.7 px 99.89 % 1.6 min 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
W. Khan, V. Suaste, D. Caudillo and R. Klette: Belief Propagation Stereo Matching Compared to iSGM on Binocular or Trinocular Video Data. IV 2013.
206 ADSM 8.71 % 10.05 % 2.1 px 2.7 px 100.00 % 125 s 1 core @ 2.0 Ghz (C/C++)
O. Zeglazi, M. Rziza, A. Amine and C. Demonceaux: Accurate dense stereo matching for road scenes. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2017, Beijing, China, September 17-20, 2017 .
207 Deep-Raw 8.93 % 11.07 % 3.9 px 4.9 px 100.00 % 1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
Z. Chen, X. Sun, Y. Yu, L. Wang and C. Huang: A Deep Visual Correspondence Embedding Model for Stereo Matching Costs. ICCV 2015.
208 S+GF (Cen) code 9.03 % 11.21 % 2.1 px 3.4 px 100.00 % 140 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Zhang, Y. Fang, D. Min, L. Sun, S. Yang, S. Yan and Q. Tian: Cross-Scale Cost Aggregation for Stereo Matching. CVPR 2014.
209 CrossCensus 9.46 % 10.86 % 2.3 px 2.7 px 100.00 % 30 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Zhang, J. Lu and G. Lafruit: Cross-Based Local Stereo Matching Using Orthogonal Integral Images. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on 2009.
210 SymST-GP 9.79 % 11.66 % 2.5 px 3.3 px 100.00 % 0.254 s Dual - Nvidia GTX Titan (CUDA)
R. Ralha, G. Falcao, J. Amaro, V. Mota, M. Antunes, J. Barreto and U. Nunes: Parallel refinement of slanted 3D reconstruction using dense stereo induced from symmetry. Journal of Real-Time Image Processing 2016.
211 SM_GPTM 9.79 % 11.38 % 2.1 px 2.6 px 100.00 % 6.5 s 2 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
C. Cigla and A. Alatan: An Improved Stereo Matching Algorithm with Ground Plane and Temporal Smoothness Constraints. ECCV Workshops 2012.
212 LAMC-DSΜ 9.82 % 11.49 % 2.1 px 2.7 px 99.96 % 10.8 min 2 cores @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab)
C. Stentoumis, L. Grammatikopoulos, I. Kalisperakis, E. Petsa and G. Karras: A local adaptive approach for dense stereo matching in architectural scene reconstruction. ISPRS 2013.
213 IIW 10.78 % 12.62 % 3.3 px 4.3 px 70.85 % 5.5 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
A. Murarka and N. Einecke: A meta-technique for increasing density of local stereo methods through iterative interpolation and warping. Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision 2014.
214 SDM code 10.95 % 12.14 % 2.0 px 2.3 px 63.58 % 1 min 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Kostkova: Stratified dense matching for stereopsis in complex scenes. BMVC 2003.
215 HLSC_mesh 11.22 % 12.82 % 2.3 px 2.9 px 100.00 % 800 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)
S. Hadfield, K. Lebeda and R. Bowden: Stereo reconstruction using top-down cues. Computer Vision and Image Understanding 2016.
216 GF (Census) code 11.65 % 13.76 % 4.5 px 5.6 px 100.00 % 120 s 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
A. Hosni, C. Rhemann, M. Bleyer, C. Rother and M. Gelautz: Fast Cost-Volume Filtering for Visual Correspondence and Beyond. TPAMI 2013.
K. Zhang, Y. Fang, D. Min, L. Sun, S. Yang, S. Yan and Q. Tian: Cross-Scale Cost Aggregation for Stereo Matching. CVPR 2014.
217 BSM code 11.74 % 13.44 % 2.2 px 2.8 px 97.02 % 2.5 min 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Li, W. Hu, L. Sun and S. Yang: Binary stereo matching. Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2012 21st International Conference on 2012.
218 GCSF
This method uses optical flow information.
code 12.05 % 13.24 % 1.9 px 2.1 px 60.77 % 2.4 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Cech, J. Sanchez-Riera and R. Horaud: Scene Flow Estimation by Growing Correspondence Seeds. CVPR 2011.
219 OCV-BM-post code 12.28 % 13.76 % 2.1 px 2.3 px 47.11 % 0.1 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
G. Bradski: The OpenCV Library. Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools 2000.
220 GCS code 13.38 % 14.54 % 2.1 px 2.3 px 51.06 % 2.2 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
J. Cech and R. Sara: Efficient Sampling of Disparity Space for Fast And Accurate Matching. BenCOS 2007.
221 GLDS code 17.22 % 18.63 % 2.8 px 3.2 px 100.00 % 26 s GPU @ 1.5 Ghz (C/C++)
K. Oguri and Y. Shibata: A new stereo formulation not using pixel and disparity models. 2018.
222 CostFilter code 19.99 % 21.08 % 5.0 px 5.4 px 100.00 % 4 min 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab)
C. Rhemann, A. Hosni, M. Bleyer, C. Rother and M. Gelautz: Fast Cost-Volume Filtering for Visual Correspondence and Beyond. CVPR 2011.
223 GC+occ code 33.49 % 34.73 % 8.6 px 9.2 px 87.57 % 6 min 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
V. Kolmogorov and R. Zabih: Computing Visual Correspondence with Occlusions using Graph Cuts. ICCV 2001.
224 VariableCros 34.84 % 36.11 % 12.4 px 12.9 px 95.66 % 30 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab)
K. Zhang, J. Lu and G. Lafruit: Cross-Based Local Stereo Matching Using Orthogonal Integral Images. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on 2009.
225 ALE-Stereo code 50.48 % 51.19 % 13.0 px 13.5 px 100.00 % 50 min 1 core @ 3.0 Ghz (C/C++)
L. Ladicky, P. Sturgess, C. Russell, S. Sengupta, Y. Bastanlar, W. Clocksin and P. Torr: Joint Optimisation for Object Class Segmentation and Dense Stereo Reconstruction. BMVC 2010.
226 MEDIAN 52.61 % 53.67 % 7.7 px 8.2 px 99.95 % 0.01 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
227 AVERAGE 61.62 % 62.49 % 8.0 px 8.6 px 99.95 % 0.01 s 1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)
This table as LaTeX


Related Datasets

  • HCI/Bosch Robust Vision Challenge: Optical flow and stereo vision challenge on high resolution imagery recorded at a high frame rate under diverse weather conditions (e.g., sunny, cloudy, rainy). The Robert Bosch AG provides a prize for the best performing method.
  • Image Sequence Analysis Test Site (EISATS): Synthetic image sequences with ground truth information provided by UoA and Daimler AG. Some of the images come with 3D range sensor information.
  • Middlebury Stereo Evaluation: The classic stereo evaluation benchmark, featuring four test images in version 2 of the benchmark, with very accurate ground truth from a structured light system. 38 image pairs are provided in total.
  • Daimler Stereo Dataset: Stereo bad weather highway scenes with partial ground truth for freespace
  • Make3D Range Image Data: Images with small-resolution ground truth used to learn and evaluate depth from single monocular images.
  • Lubor Ladicky's Stereo Dataset: Stereo Images with manually labeled ground truth based on polygonal areas.

Citation

When using this dataset in your research, we will be happy if you cite us:
@inproceedings{Geiger2012CVPR,
  author = {Andreas Geiger and Philip Lenz and Raquel Urtasun},
  title = {Are we ready for Autonomous Driving? The KITTI Vision Benchmark Suite},
  booktitle = {Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
  year = {2012}
}



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