Tracking by Detection [TBD]

Submitted on 21 Jan. 2014 12:08 by
Andreas Geiger (MPI Tübingen)

Running time:10 s
Environment:1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab + C/C++)

Method Description:
This tracker operates in three stages: First, objects are detected in each frame independently using the DPM object detector by Ross Girshick and Pedro Felzenszwalb. Second, all detections with a positive score are associated to detections in the next frame using appearance and the bounding box overlap. We predict objects to the next frame using a Kalman filter and associate them globally via the Hungarian method for bipartite matching. To gap occlusions and missed detections, we also associate tracklets with each other in a first stage. Similarly to the second stage the Hungarian algorithm is employed but this time based on a occlusion sensitive appearance model and regression of the bounding boxes in one tracklet from the bounding boxes in the other tracklet. The algorithm outputs all associated tracklets with a lifetime longer than three frames.

The reported running time is dominated by the object detection stage.
See implementation.
Latex Bibtex:
author = {Andreas Geiger and Martin Lauer and Christian Wojek and Christoph Stiller and Raquel Urtasun},
title = {3D Traffic Scene Understanding from Movable Platforms},
journal = {Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI)},
year = {2014}
author = {Hongyi Zhang and Andreas Geiger and Raquel Urtasun},
title = {Understanding High-Level Semantics by Modeling Traffic Patterns},
booktitle = {International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
year = {2013}

Detailed Results

From all 29 test sequences, our benchmark computes the HOTA tracking metrics (HOTA, DetA, AssA, DetRe, DetPr, AssRe, AssPr, LocA) [1] as well as the CLEARMOT, MT/PT/ML, identity switches, and fragmentation [2,3] metrics. The tables below show all of these metrics.

Benchmark HOTA DetA AssA DetRe DetPr AssRe AssPr LocA
CAR 43.01 % 43.06 % 43.30 % 44.50 % 79.49 % 44.94 % 84.22 % 81.47 %

Benchmark TP FP FN
CAR 19111 15281 141

CAR 53.94 % 78.45 % 55.16 % 418 41.97 %

Benchmark MT rate PT rate ML rate FRAG
CAR 20.61 % 46.62 % 32.77 % 531

Benchmark # Dets # Tracks
CAR 19252 877

This table as LaTeX

This figure as: png pdf

[1] J. Luiten, A. Os̆ep, P. Dendorfer, P. Torr, A. Geiger, L. Leal-Taixé, B. Leibe: HOTA: A Higher Order Metric for Evaluating Multi-object Tracking. IJCV 2020.
[2] K. Bernardin, R. Stiefelhagen: Evaluating Multiple Object Tracking Performance: The CLEAR MOT Metrics. JIVP 2008.
[3] Y. Li, C. Huang, R. Nevatia: Learning to associate: HybridBoosted multi-target tracker for crowded scene. CVPR 2009.

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